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The plays of Kunsam Lee definitely open the new era of Korean modern drama. Since he published his debut play of 'A Writing Pad(Wongogi)' in 1960, Kunsam Lee kept anti-realistic attitude throughout his plays. He applied various techniques and concepts of modern Western theatre to his plays. His plays used various anti-realitsic methods such as epic theatre, allegory and expressionism. They criticised the political and social situations of contemporary Korea. His views toward the society were very cynical and even ridiculous. This essay selects seven representative plays of Kunsam Lee. 'A Writing Pad' showed us the influence of Expressionsim, while 'The emperor refused to die' used the technique of multi-allegory. 'There is Something left (Kukmul issayopnida)'is a sort of balck comedy of manners, which comically satired the worship of materialism. 'A wandering company(Eurang Kukdan)' used the technique of 'play within a play' and succeeded to the spirit of traditional theatre. 'The trial of Abelman' is an allegory, asking the relation of justice and the political power. 'Goose (Kaesani)' reinterpreted the period of Japanese invasion in the 16th century from the point of a common woman whose nickname was Goose. In other words, the writer rewrote the history from the view of a modern man. 'The real property of Sungkae Yi, the founder of Yi dynasty' used the parody to tell the story of a rich contemporary man, who mistook himself for Sungkae Yi, the founder of Yi dynasty. The illusion and the reality were mixing, and the truth became illusive. Indeed, the plays of Kunsam Lee used various anti-realistic techniques of contemporary western drama to criticise the contempoary Korean society. He reserved any moral judgement and kept the distance. Thus, his plays impress us with intelligence and cynicism. Most characteristics of his plays are new to Korean drama. Consequently, his plays open new era of Korean modern drama, which is free from realism and emphasizes theatricality.
The works of Youngjin Oh are rooted in Korean nationalism. Since he experienced the Japanese colonial period and his family was a leader of resistance against Japan in Pyongyang area, Youngjin Oh has strong nationalism throughout his life. After the Liberation from Japan, he had to flee from his hometown of the North because of communists. Thus, his works reflects his strong anti-communism and anti-Japanese feelings. The nationalism of Youngjin Oh has been expressed in two ways; one is the experiment of applying Korean traditional elements and legends to his scenarios and plays and the other is the keen but healthy satire of modern Korean society. This essay selects three ritualistic scenarios to examine how the writer applies Korean tradition to his modern works; they are Paebaeingi-kut(Paebaeingi ritual for the dead), The Wedding Day and Hanne ue Seungchon(The Ascension of Hanne), respectively reflects the funeral, the wedding and the village rituals. He successfully suggests models for reviving Korean tradition in modern works. His nationalism is clearer in his plays of dealing with modern society. The living Sir Jungsaeing Lee concerns the liquidation problems of the colonial past. He satirizes a betrayer during Japanese colonial period and shows us how he tactfully survives under American military government. However, the writer shows us how the betrayer falls into a trap set by him. Through his collapse, the writer insists to well build a new nation. In Wearing Appappa, Youngjin Oh gives us warnings against Japanese new economical invasion. Indeed, Younghin Oh is the first contemporary writer, who paid attention to the revivals of our Korean tradition in modern works. Besides his nationalism directs us to healthy and humane way to build a new nation.
The Korean cultural movements of the early 20th century tended to aim to enlighten the Korean people, who were facing social changes and the colonial period. The dramatic movement was not an exception. In fact, due to the nature of theatre which meets the audience directly, the edifying role in theatre was more emphasized and lasted longer than in any other cultural movement. As the Korean modern drama emerged, the edifying perspective of theatre became more evident. Owing to the rising of the performers social status, the intellingentsia came to join theatre and to publish its edifying role by the early 20s. This paper examined the views of theatres role in the 20s, represented by Yoon Packnam, Hyunchul, Kim Woonchong, Cho Chunkwang, Kim Woojin and Hong Haesong, the representative dramatists and the critics of the 20s. They, except Kim Woojin, overall insisted that theatre had to initiate the nation-wide cultural movements and bad to be the best way to enlighten people. However, Kim Woojin who fully understood the Western Modern drama denied the edifying role of theatre. His artistic miew on theatre was later realiaed in the 30s. It is strange to notice the insistence of the edifying role lasted longer in theatre compared with in the other genres of poetry and novel, which began to move toward the artistic lines in the 20s. This seemed due to the impersonating nature of theatre as well as the efforts to change the conventional contemptuous view on theatrical arts from Yi dynasty. Many early dramatists joined theatre in order to improve society under the colonial rules and got respects from the people. This edifying view of theatre was in a sense an obstacle to the development of the modern drama but helped to raise the social status of theatre and to popularize it.
This essay tries to analyze the postmodernity of the plays of Hyunhwa Lee. Bulgabulga(No-Yes-No-Yes- : 1982) and Sanssitkim (A Dead Ritual for a Living : 1981) will be examined since these plays are believed to be the two basic poles of his plays. Bulgabulga represents the world of deconstruction while Sanssitkim emphasizes that of interculuralism, even though both trends are found in the two plays. The basic concepts and techniques of deconstruction are found in Bulgabulga. The total and definite meanings of the play are kept elusive. Many devices such as a play within a play, repetition, a pun on the marginal words of positive and negative intensify its elusiveness, and obscure its definite meaning. The meaning seems to be delayed endlessly like Derrida's conceptual word of 'Differant'. Even historical facts are artfully repetitious and contribute to the delay of total meaning of the play. There are two different cultures and forms chat clash in Sanssitkim even at first sight. Within the frame of causality plot, the transcendental frame of Ssitkimkut, a shaman ritual for the dead, is working. The effects of Artaurd's cruelty theatre and the Korean shaman ritual are well mixed to create a intercultural theatre. Many features of the play such as structure, the use of repetitious silence and words, props, and acting are interwoven by the western and Korean traditions and make the most of intercultural techniques. Though the analytic methods of deconstruction and interculturalism are applied to each play respectively, both trends could be found in these plays. Bulgabulga is intercultural in the sense that it uses the linear plot of the west as well as the repetitious plot of Korean folk plays; there are also many mixtures of Korean and the Western elements in costume and props. Sanssitkim is de-constructive just to deny the binary world of the West and the East, and to create a third aesthetic experience. Indeed, the plays of Hyunhwa Lee successfully carry the world of deconsturction and interculturalism. In other words, he is a pioneer who established postmodern theatre in Korea as early as the early 1980s.
Hyunsuk Park is an important playwright as she is one of the first Korean woman playwrights and has led them ever after. Since she published her debut play of 「A Plea (Hangbun)」, Hyunsuk Park paid attention to love and family affairs. Her subjects touched on women's interests, but she was never conscious of feministic views. Though she indirectly accused patriarchal society of oppressing women, she kept conservative views to interpret women's matters. She believed an ideal woman to forgive with generosity and to love infinitely. Hyunsuk Park was also concerned with the devided situation of Korea. Since she fled in her youth from North Korea by herself, she missed her widowed mother all the time. Therefore, her plays that pay attention to society, highlight the pains of the divided Korea and express her wishes for unification. This essay selects ten plays out of eighteen plays of Hyunsuk Park. The first play, 「A Plea」, dealing with the love-hate relationship between man and wife, expresses her main subjects and interests of the plays to come. 「Because of Love (Sarangul Chajaso)」 describes a scapegoat of the ideological confrontation between the North and the South. Because the heroine travels back and forth between the South and the North following her lover, she is stigmatized as a spy. 「A Woman(Yoein)」, her first full-length play, deals with a couple of melodramatic love triangles, focusing on the heroine's psychology. 「The World is a Magic Glass (Sesang un Yogikyung)」 is a satrical fable of political election, but also exposes the false relationship between man and wife. 「A Masquerade (Kamyon Mudohoe)」 boldly describes a housewife's debauchery. It ends well only because the masked lover turns out to be her husband. In her later plays of 「The Wonderful Inheritance (Kue Chanranhan Yusan)」 and 「The Mother of Nation (Chokuk ue oumoni)」, the playwright definitely broadens her interests toward modem Korean history. 「A Women's Fortress (Yeoja ue Seng)」 and 「The Return Trip (Hoero)」 are typical family melodramas, including love triangles and forgiveness. It is also noticeable that 「The Return Trip」 raises the problem of senile dementia, which even becomes a very recent social problem In these last two plays, the playwright strongly insists forgiveness and love, and suggests them as women's true values. Indeed, Hyunsuk Park definitely opens the new era of female playwrights in Korea. Her plays mainly focus on love and family affairs, and add women's voices to Korean plays. She is also concerned with the divided situation of Korea. Her view toward the society is still very conservative from the point of feminism. Ironically, it is the very conservative nature of her work that allows her to be effective in bringing forth women's issues in today's still patriachal society.