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In this study, we attempt to produce a semi-elliptical riblet with a shark skin-like surface using wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) and micro molding techniques. Our design for the production of the semi-elliptical mold includes an electrode, a winding roller, and a guide on the WEDM system. A replication mold with negative riblets is machined using WEDM, and a shark skin inspired surface with positive riblets is fabricated using a micro molding technique. For a comparison with the original shark skin, a shark skin replica is also produced using the micro molding technique directly from a shark skin template. Droplet contact angles on a flat surface, the shark skin replica, and the epoxy resin-based micro riblet shark skin-like surface are evaluated. The effect of a Teflon coating on the contact angles for the three different surfaces is also investigated. The results show the micro riblet with a shark skin-like surface has a similar contact angle as the shark skin replica, which means that the simplified riblet shark skin surface strongly influences the performance of wettability. This study confirms the effectiveness of using the WEDM method to prepare hydrophobic surfaces with diverse surface patterns.
1968년 WCC 4차 웁살라 총회의 선교목표가 “인간화”라는 선언은 세계선교사역의 정체성을 잃어버리게 만들었고, 그 자리에 선교의 부수적 사역인 “사회참여” 혹은 “사회봉사”가 자리를 잡았다. 복음주의 선교의 복음전도로 본 “복음화”는 에큐메니칼 선교의 “인간화”에 세계선교의 주도권을 빼앗기고, 설자리를 잃어버렸을 때, 피터 바엘 하우스를 중심으로 한 독일 에큐메니칼 선교내의 복음주의 입장에 선 학자들이 “프랑크푸르트 선언문”(The frankfurt Declaration)을 발표하게 되었다. 본 선언문은 선교의 주제가 인간화가 아니고 복음화라는 명확한 정답을 제시해준 제안서며, 설명서다. 이 부분의 연구가 한국선교신학회에 거의 없었다. 여기에 ‘다시읽기'작업으로 재정리하여, 혼돈스러운 복음주의선교입장을 바로 세우고, 에큐메니칼 선교의 과제를 재정리하였다. 선교는 양 진영의 통합이 아니라, 하나님의 자기계시를 증거하는 성경의 복음이 지닌 진리를 복음전도와 삶으로 보여주는 것이다. 이 부분에 양 진영이 신뢰를 갖추어야 한다. 또한 복음주의선교도 에큐메니칼 선교의 협력 없이는 세계선교가 불가능함을 알아야한다. 선교는 교회의 역할과 사역중심에 하나님의 구원사역이 선포되어져야 한다. 즉 복음전도는 인간의 영원한 관심사며 제일가는 사역이다. 그러므로 세계선교의 정체성으로, 복음주의 선교가 선교현장에 있어야 하는 이유가 바로 이것이다. The declaration of “humanization” as the goal of the mission in the 4th assembly of the World Council of Churches, Uppsala in 1968, resulted in losing the identity of the world missionary work, but the social participation or service had emerged as the identity of the mission. German evangelical scholars who led by Peter Beyerhaus in the Ecumenical mission announced the “Frankfurt Statement” when the mission of the “Evangelism” lost the hegemony of the mission by the “Humanization” of the Ecumenical mission. This new statement was a manual that states the theme of the mission is not humanization but evangelization. In this regard, this type of the research has not been conducted in the Korean Mission Theological Society. Therefore, this study is to set up a clear viewpoint of the evangelical mission by the “Re-Reading” work and rearrange the task of Ecumenical Mission. The mission is to reveal the truth of the gospel by the Holy Bible and show to the world the life of the Christian rather than ideological controversy between the Evangelical and Ecumenical missions. To success, the world mission, both the Evangelical and Ecumenical missions should cooperate and trust each other. The mission involves the work of God's salvation in the church ministry. The most important and valuable moment in the mission is to own the eternal life. This is the reason why the Evangelism should focus on the mission filed and this is the identity of the World Mission.
In manufacturing, process automation and parameter optimization are required in order to improve productivity. Especially in welding process, productivity and weldablity should be considered to determine the process parameter. In this paper, optimization methodology was proposed to determine the welding conditions using the objective function in terms of productivity and weldablity. In order to conduct this, welding experiments were carried out. Tensile test was performed to evaluate the weldability. Neural network model to estimate tensile strength using the laser power, welding speed, and wire feed rate was developed. Objective function was defined using the normalized tensile strength which represented the weldablilty and welding speed and wire feed rate which represented the productivity. The optimal welding parameters which maximized the objective function were determined.
In this study, aluminum laser welding of AA5182 with AA5356 filler wire was performed with 4㎾ Nd:YAG Laser. In order to determine the feasibility to apply 5000 series aluminum alloy to car body, the formability was investigated through Erichsen test according to laser power, welding speed and wire feed rate. Fracture after Erichsen test was occurred perpendicular to the weld line if the Erichsen ratio was over 0.75 and fracture was parallel to the weld line otherwise. The Erichsen ratio value of 0.75 could be criterion to evaluate formability.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
The aim of this study is to elucidate the basic concept, content and thought of Martin Luther's mission, which are contain edinhissermons. So this study triestocriticize Gustav Warneck's improper view, that Luther neglected the mission for the Gospel or there was no missionary try for him. It also has the attempt, David Bosch's view to highlight, that Luther was a creative and original thinker for the missio dei. Further it tries to expose a significant claim, that Luther had very positive influence on the Christian Mission. To understand the mission, which is presented in Luther's sermon, one must first analyze it and elucidate the main characteristics of Luther's context of his sermon. Luther gave over 3000 sermons, so it is not overstated to say that he truly was a man who preached every day. Thus he is said to be a man of sermon. Despite that fact Luther's work has been neglected by further studies about his sermons. That is why it is difficult for scholars to further study Luther's mission in the context of his sermon. However, Luther's sermons were performed to spread Protestantism during the Reformation, thus one may regard it as “Mission's sermon (Missionspredigt)”. This Study focuses mainly on Luther's sermon patterns which are dogmatism, postillen, and educational sermon forms. We can ascertain that the basic characteristics of sermons are directly linked to missionary characteristics. To be specific, the place of pastoral duties becomes the place in which the mission takes place, the core of the sermon is the bible, and the audience is inhabitants that are in proclamation of the mission's place. The functions of the mission which are the place of the mission, the natives which regard the mission, and the spread of the word are directly connected to Luther's sermon approach toward the salvation of the souls and the goal of the mission which sees the salvation of the soul as the salvation of the life. Especially, Luther's sermons for his Reformation are connected to the Missionary Movement.As state above there are two forms of Luther's sermons. (1) The subject of the sermon tells about the and “Easter” service. The mission sermon à going to the end of the world and telling about the god's word. Thus this is the proclamation to spread god's words to the end of the world and save men's soul. This is called Keryigmatic Sermon. (2) In the sermon the delegated order for the mission is embedded in the four gospel this is “Spread the word”. In the context of his sermons he embedded the mission orders of the four Gospels and also the proclamation of Jesus Christ during important worships. This he applied also identically to the Jews and Turks. Luther thought that if he showed them Jesus love that this would be mission. Today, spreading the word takes forms such as showing Jesus' love, practice it, this is the most essential and basic ways of the mission. Understanding mission in Luther's sermon is the root of every Protestant Mission. It is dangerous to estimate the understanding of the mission in Luther's sermon according to the present concept of mission as it had been stated 500 years ago. We have to stop being surprised, as we look at the interpretation the Understanding of mission in Luther's sermon as it is the basic, starting point, process, and context of the present understanding of the mission.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
The South Korea is setting wholistic crisis, such as world economic crisis, hard economic crisis, and nuclear problem of North Korea. The North Korea directly talk with the United States and Obama president address about the North Korea, so South-North Korea have uncomfortable relationship each other. In this situation, I defined the roles of South Korea Christian through three step in the article. First, the North Korea is inseparable from understanding of the South Korea against speech of Mass media. Some speeches wrong announce between North Korea and South Korea relationship, the North Korea ahead attack to South Korea. If North Korea give up nuclear, the South Korea actively change recognition with relationship of the North Korea. Second, the direction of South Korea government attempts to “partnership and cooperation”, improve to relationship with the North Korea through denuclearization. Third, the role of South Korea Christian and normality of South- North relationship can support denuclearization of North Korea. Now the Christianity of South Korea got the trust from North Korea, because the Christianity continual support from a humanitarian point of view to the North Korea. Therefore, the Christianity of South Korea should be try to deeply search benefit toward the North Korea mission and unification. I think that this answer is the Bible. The South Korea and Christianity need more reconciliation, forgiveness, devotion, and consideration toward the North Korea. It may help to establish trust each other to the unification of South-North Korea.
The World Church, Christian, and Christianity had lost attribute of faith from the wave of secularization. This reason outcome disciplines method of western theology from God-center theology to human- center theology. In this perspective, the Korea church and theology brought same problems. The theology did not obligate for the Korea church. Dr. Jong Hyun Chang mentioned that correct theology should be change church, pastor, and christian. Reformed Life Theology is "A Movement of Recovery of Jesus Christ Life" Dr. Jong Hyun Chang argued that Reformed Life Theology is "A Movement of Spiritual Life" by which people are transformed by the gospel of Jesus Christ. Dr, Jong Hyun Chang emphasis that Reformed Life Theology focuses on the purpose of teaching the Bible and living the Bible. The Bible is the Word of God. The Bible is the sole standard of faith and life. Reformed Life Theology asserted the recovery of Word of God. This work could be emphasized on the prayer of movement. Dr. Jong Hyun Chang mentioned that the reason why Reformed Life Theology promotes a movement of prayer is because without prayer we fall too easily into spiritual blindness and arrogance. He emphasized that Reformed Life Theology came from repentance of Holy Spirit of fullness and Prayer. Therefore, Reformed emphasizes dawn prayers, overnight prayers, fasting prayers and other movements of prayer as heartfelt praying is the only way for spritual survival and revival. Dr. Jong Hyun Chang emphasizes five slogans and seven practice doctrines based on knees in prayer. Dr. Jong Hyun Chang has taken the lead by practicing the movement of the Holy Spirit and movement of prayer. The five slogans and seven practice doctrines came from ``knee in prayer.`` The five slogans are ``By scripture alone, through Christ alone, By faith alone, By grace alone, and Glory to God alone. This connection outcame from contents of prayer in each another. Dr. Jong Hyun Chang`s purpose of payer served the glory of God and seeking will of God. The seven practice doctrines focuses prayer movement and spiritual movement based on five movements-A Movement of Faith, A Movement of Theological Restoration, A Movement of Spiritual Life, A Movement of the Kingdom of God, A Movement of Sharing. The movement of Holy Spirit is movement of prayer. The prayer can be completed by the guide of Holy Spirit. Therefore, Dr. Jong Hyun Chang saved the Korea church, Christian, and society through knee in prayer. Dr. Jong Hyun Chang`s ``Knee in Prayer`` based on Reformed Life Theology, so the prayer can be recovered Reformed Life Theology and changed the theological paradigm.