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한국교회는 자국으로부터 한반도에 파송 받은 선교사가 입국한 이후부터 계산할 때 여130년의 선교역사를 가지고 있다.좀 더 정확하게 말하자면, 2017년은 한국교회에 미국 북 장로회 의료 선교사 알렌이 입국한 지 137년이 되는 해이다.알렌 이 미국 북 장로회 의료 선교사로 파송받아 중국 상해에서 활동하다가 조선 땅을 밞은 때가 1884년 9월 20일이기 때문이다. 한반도에 복음이 들어 와 교회가 설립되기 시작한 지 여130 년이 지나면서 한국교회사에 대한 관심이 학계를 넘어 교회설립 역사가 오래된 개별교회와 지역사회 등으로 그 지평이 지속적으로 확대되어 가고 있다. 개별교회는 자신들의 교회역사를 출판하면서 그 교회가 지역사회에 미친 영향력이 무엇이었는지에 관심을 가지고 학자들에게 연구를 의뢰하는 사례가 증가하고 있다. 이 과정에서 학자와 해당 교회가 의식적이든지 아니면 무의식적이든지 역사를 곡해하거나 왜곡시키는 일들이 발생하고 있다. 개별교회 역사의 곡해 또는 왜곡이 일어나는 부분은 설립자가 누구인가? 교회가 최초로 설립된 위치는 정확하게 어디인가? 등 다양하지만, 가장 많은 부분은 개별교회의 설립년도에 관한 내용이다.개별 교회 설립년도가 중요해 진 것은 교회 역사를 정확하게 기록하기 위한 목적도 있지만, 자신의 교회가 그 지역의 기독교복음전래의 구심점 역할을 하고 싶은 생각이 그 중요 원인으로 작용하는 경우가 있다.또 다른 중요한 원인은 사료의 부족, 학자의 연구 부족, 그리고 학자의 편협적인 사료 활용 등에 있다. 필자는 광주광역시를 중심으로 특정교회의 설립 년도를 편협적인 사료활용으로 왜곡시켰던 사례와 사료의 부족 및 학자의 연구 부족으로 발생한 개별교회 설립역사의 곡해 사례를 살필 것이다.그런 다음, 교회역사학사와 각 교회가 교회역사의 곡해 또는 왜곡하는 것을 방지하기 위한 방안을 제안할 것이다. It has already been more than 130 years since the Christian gospel through Protestantism began to spread to Korea by missionaries sent from the missionaries' own native denominations. More precisely, the year 2017 marks the 137th anniversary of the arrival of Allen, a medical missionary of the Presbyterian Church of the United States in America(PCUSA), to Korea. This is because September 20, 1884, when Allen, who was sent to the Medical Missionary from PCUSA in Shanghai, China, arrived on the Korea peninsula. Over the past 130 years since the gospel has spread to the Korea peninsula, the interest in the history of the establishment of the church has been growing steadily over the past few decades. As the church publishes its history, there is an increasing number of cases in which scholars are commissioned to study what the church has in the community. In this process, church historians and churches, whether they wear conscious or unconscious, w ould have committed the mistake of producing distorted church history. The distortions in the history of each church can vary, such as who is the founder or exactly where the church was f irst established. But the greatest part is when the church was founded. The importance of when each church was founded is purpose to accurately record the history of each church, but it is often the case that the desire of one's own church to serve as a base for the history of christian gospel arrival in the region. Another important cause is the lack of historical data and research by church historians, and the application of narrow historical source of church historians. I am going to show the case of the year of the establishment of a particular church that is distorted by the intensive use of the historical source of the church historian and the history of the establishment of the church due to the lack of historical materials or research by church historians focusing on the church in Gwangju Metropolitan City. Finally, I will then propose ways to prevent that church historians and churches pervert each church history.
호남지역 선교사들이 삼일운동에 미친 영향에 대해 학자들이 관심을 가지고 연구하기 시작한 것은 비교적 최근의 일이다. 최근이긴 하지만 많은 학자들이 호남지역 삼일운동에 미친 선교사들의 영향력에 관심을 가지고 연구함으로써 상당한 진척이 있었다. 그런데 호남지역 선교를 담당했던 미국 남장로회 선교사들이 삼일운동에 미친 영향력과 그 원인을 미국 남장로회의 1차 사료와 기본적인 신학에 근거하여 접근한 연구물이 없다는 아쉬움을 남기고 있다. 필자는 본 논문을 통하여 1차 사료와 선교사들이 가지고 있었던 사회영향력 관련의 기본적인 신학을 토대로, 그들이 삼일운동에 미친 영향력과 그 원인을 살폈다. 그 결과 미국 남장로회 선교사들이 한국 내 정치에 참여하지 않은 것은 1901년 9월 장로회공의회가 채택한 5개항을 준수한 것이며, 동시에 정교분리 신학과 관련한 그들의 사회참여 신학의 영향을 간과할 수 없음을 확인하였다. 그리고 호남지역 장로회가 교회 법정의 이름으로 만세시위를 주도하지 않고 개인 자격으로 참여한 것은 미국 남장로회의 소극적 사회참여 신학의 영향이었음을 드러내었다. 물론 선교사들이 1910년 이전에는 일본의 한국 병탄의 부당성을 가르쳤고, 선교사들은 한국 학생들과 함께 독립운동가를 부르기도 했다. 동시에 일제가 자신들의 신문에 삼일만세운동의 배후에 한국에 있는 외국 선교사들이 있다고 했을 때, 호남지역 선교사들은 자신들이 삼일운동에 전혀 관여한 바가 없었다고 해명했다는 것도 사실이다. It is relatively recent that scholars began to study the influence of missionaries in the Honam area on the 3.1 Independence Movement in Korea. There have been considerable progress in recent years. Although many scholars have been interested in the influence of missionaries related to the Independent Movement in the Honam region of Korea. However, it is regrettable that there are no researches based on the basic theology of the US Southern Presbyterian Church. Based on the basic theology of social influences held by the primary sources and missionaries, I studied their influence and the cause of the 3.1 Independence Movement through this paper. As a result, it was confirmed that the missionaries of the US Southern Presbyterian Church did not participate in politics in Korea. It is compliance with the five terms adopted by the Presbyterian Council in September 1901 and at the same time, they could not overlook the influence of their social participation theology. And the fact that the Korea Presbyterian Church in Honam Region participated as an individual without leading the protest with the name of the church court revealed that it was the influence of the passive socialparticipation theology of the US Southern Presbyterian Church. Of course, before 1910, missionaries taught the unfairness of Japanese Korean troops, and missionaries sang song of independence with Korean students. At the same time, when Japan said that there were foreign missionaries in Korea supported the Independence Movement in their newspapers, missionaries in the Honam region explained that they had never been involved in the 3.1 Independence Movement.
The Korea Church showed great concern about the faced points at issue of the nation and society from mission early for korea. The concern of Korean church toward the nation and social under the Japanese Empire appeared in various form. Specially, the sunday school of Korean church which organized at mission early made a contribution that the members of church did work to reform the cultures of the nation, society and family by the Bible through teaching of sunday school lessons for senior course. So, the thesis of this dissertation is to prove that the saints of Korean church under the Japanese Empire were taught to what was willing to the movement for social reform positively on individual position through the education of sunday school in the Korean Church. It is regard to eccleciology that the Korea Church encouraged the social reform movement to saints on the basis of the Bible through sunday school lessons for senior course under the Japanese Empire. Therefore this dissertation treated the eccleciology focused on relational between the nation and the church with the social reform movement that is showed in sunday school lessons. Korean church propagated the gospel to korean people that have been lived in very hard because the Japanese did depress them. The gospel, Korea church propagated, had worked to reform the bad cultures namely the excessive drinking, smoking, sexual immorality and keeping a concubine etc upon the foundation of the word in the Bible. Korean church had encouraged on teaching through the sunday school lessons that saints ought to take part in movement for the reform of some cultures of nation and society, even if they did not conduct directly by the name of the court of church such a session and a presbytery, or a synod and an assembly. Also, Korean Church under the Japanese Empire emphasized the righteousness life to korean people teaching that the best ideal nation is received the rule of the God.
South Korea, as well as the world, faces a handful of human rights issues such as homosexuality. The churches can not help but worry that the Bible is more how to deal with the problem of minority human rights legally recognized homosexual. This paper selected two items of the America society was promoting social renewal movement in the 19th century, and looked at that the Presbyterian Church in southern of America reacted how to the movement. The first, the Presbyterian Church in southern of America is how to interpret slavery to justify on Bible. The second, Presbyterian Church in southern US states have examined how to response when the US government asks the church for participate in the temperance movement through the Executive Committee of the American Temperance Union. The society renewal participation theology of the southern Presbyterian Church in the 19th century includes both the advantages and disadvantages. The southern United States was that many labor was actively in favor of slavery because it required, so the southern Presbyterian Church asserted that Bible is supporting slavery, taking into account the environment of the southern region. And they insisted the pasters or elders must be participate in personal capacity than to directly participate in the name of session, presbytery, synod and General Assembly of the church at the society renewal movement. The Presbyterian Church in southern of America of the 19th century did not deviate by regionalism in favor of slavery based on the Bible. Because of this, they also limited the role of the church as salt and light of the world by passively participating in social renewal movement such as the temperance movement.
Southern Presbyterian Church in America was allocated Honam region as area of mission work according to signed a comity agreement in January 1893 which made Honam region have a close relation with Southern Presbyterian Church in America. There is no doubt that missionaries of Southern Presbyterian Church in America inculcated theological color of 19th century that Southern Presbyterian Church in America had when they built Kingdom of God in Honam region. Therefore, studying theology of 19th century`s Southern Presbyterian Church is very important in that it can help find the root of theological identity that presbytery of Honam region has had. Then, what was theology of 19th century`s Southern Presbyterian Church in America? Theologians at home and abroad consider theology of 19th century`s Southern Presbyterian Church in connection with that of two theologians, James Henley Thornwell(1812-62) and Robert Dabney(1820-98). Was 19th century`s Southern Presbyterian Church based on theology of James Henley Thornwell and Robert Dabney as calvinists depend heavily on theology of John Calvin? This study proved the influence of Thornwell on Southern Presbyterian Church in America by examining his influence ranging from 19th century to the present on Southern Presbyterian Church in America after introducing his life. The reason this paper studied Thornwell is as follows; First, studying one theologian not two theologians was considered the effective of limited space; Second, Thornwell was better progenitor than Dabney in many sides; Third, Thornwell had a deeper and wider influence on 19th century`s Southern Presbyterian Church in America. Studying Thornwell`s life arid influence clearly revealed the following reasons why he could be placed at the center of 19th century`s theology of Southern Presbyterian Church in America. First, Thornwell is recognized as a scholar representing 19th century`s theology of Southern Presbyterian Church. Second, influence of Thornwell`s theology continued to this day throughout the United States of America on centering Presbyterian Church in America(PCA) not limited to temporary influence on Southern Presbyterian Church of 19th century. Third, Thornwell`s having influence throughout the United States of America can be interpreted his influence may be expanded into Presbyterian Church throughout the world. Materials related to Thornwell proved that his influence continued throughout his life not short term influence. He was recognized with his own ability beyond the title of chairman of Old School Presbytery. Activities of Thornwell as church statesman, theologian and preacher show his another influence. Conference and general assembly of Old School Presbytery did not always accept his argument. For example, Thornwell argued with Charles Hodge(1797-1878) over the authority of the governing elders of church before his argument was accepted by general assembly of Southern Presbyterian Church in America. Though he had a short life of fifty years, his theology built basics of 19th century`s theology of Southern Presbyterian Church. This study revealed that he had a great influence on Old School presbytery and Southern Presbyterian Church. And his influence ranged over many fields besides Christian doctrines, politics of church and education.