http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
Defense policies of the Scandinavian countries, which are Sweden, Finland, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland, are influenced by several common considerations. First of all, their cultural, linguistic, ethnic, and religious heritage do bring Scandinavian countries to the Western camp. Scandinavian countries also practice West European type of political democracy. All of these considerations bring Scandinavian countries close to the West instead of her georaphically close neighbor, the Soviet Union. At the moment, the security concern of the Scandinavian countries is directed against the Soviet Union whose communist ideology is alien to them Solutions for their defense problems. that Scandinavian countries seek, vary depending on their national experience and geopolitical situation. For instance, both Norway and Denmark who have experienced German invasion during the Second World War are tied with NATO whereas both Sweden and Finland pursue policy of neutrality. The policy of neutrality of both Sweden and Finland are not same, in that while Sweden follows a course of strong armed neutrality, Finland pursues a policy of "Finlandization", that is, neutral but pro-Soviet neutrality. Defense policies of the Scandinavian countries are inevitably influenced by the concept of Nordic balance, which has been expounded by the Norwegian diplomat, Egil Ulstein. According to Ulstein, the Nordic balance represents political and military balance based on several considerations. These considerations are, first of all, geopolitical location of the Scandinavian countries being close to the Soviet Union. Second, the East-West superpower confrontation has an impact on the Scandinavian region. Third, security of the central European countries are inevitably linked with the security question of the Scandinavian countries. These considerations that tend to produce Nordic balance have brought about two corollary on the defense policies of the Scandinavian countries: 1. Scandinavian countries avoid any provocative policy against her superpower neighbor, the Soviet Union. 2. Scandinavian countries have pursued an intense policy of defense preparedness in time of peace to combat with a potential military threat from the Soviet Union. Of these policy, the defense policy of both Sweden and Norway deserves our attention for their policy of total defense. Swedish policy of total defense is especially noteworthy for the elaborate scheme. It consists of four different defense programs: 1. military defense, 2. civil defense, 3. Psycholoigcal defense, 4. economic defense. Finally, the study deals with defense problems of the Scandinavian countries on individual basis. Sweden pursus policy of a strong armed neutrality without military tie with the West. Her principal concern is a defense from the North and coastal defense of the Baltic sea. Her current defense issue is the defense cost, that is, whether she could afford to continue to pursue a policy of armed neutrality by supplying herself of 85% of the weapons. Norway's defense problem is primarily defending her long coast to prevent the Soviet Union to secure her stronghold in Norway for the control of the Atlantic. A threat from the land in the Northern area of Norway is considerably eased by the nature, the difficult terrain. Denmark is concerned with the control of the Baltic strait and Jutland area. While Finland attempts to maintain a defense policy against the Soviet Union, her defense policy is heavily influenced by the Soviet Union's security policy. The Soviet Union does not want to see that Finland is going to be used as a corridor for invasion against the Soviet Union. Defense policies of the Scandinavian countries eventually boil down to a policy of avoiding provocation against the Soviet Union while preserving their security with maximum efforts. This policy leads to their policy of avoiding the introduction of the nuclear weapons into the Scandinavian region, which may be regarded as a dangerous provocation against the Soviet Union. In sum, the defense policies of the Scandinavian countries are to defend themselves against the Soviet Union until a military support arrives from the West while avoding any act that might trigger off nuclear conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States.