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      • (A) study on performance of economics graduate students, Korea University : who is a good human capital in graduate school?

        김경현 Graduate School, Korea University 2010 국내석사

        RANK : 232287

        The purpose of this investigation is to do determine a prediction model for selecting graduate students in economics area. Although economic graduate course in South Korea is similar to the one in Britain and the United States, little attention has been given to examine a student performance. Athey, Katz, Krueger, Levitt and Poterba(2007), who studied a research on economics graduate school of the United States, even said that economists devote considerable effort to graduate students education but have conducted relatively little research on the determinants of student performance or placement in the job market. As the authors' opinion, a study on performance of graduate students should be an important and urgent problem. But this paper is not concerned here with the determinants of student performance in labor market, the study will be supplemented by previous studied in section Ⅱ. The main objectives of this study were : firstly, to do a study on human capital in economics, secondly, to do a study on a group of the highest education level, and thirdly, to do a prediction on graduate students performance using pre-admission data of applicants. By analyzing this paper, we examine the sequentiality between economics required subjects of undergraduate and graduate course. And the paper can be concerned with what factors have an effect on economic graduate performance. It is important for selection process of pre-admission to cultivate outstanding scholars in graduate school. Hence, the results are expected to help screening graduate students in admissions committee.

      • Factors affecting absenteeism of female students in public secondary school in province-2 of Nepal

        Raju Prasad Sah Graduate School of Government, Business, and Entre 2019 국내석사

        RANK : 232271

        본 연구의 목적은 네팔 province-2 지역에 소재하는 공립중등학교 여학생들의 부등교(결석)에 영향을 미치는 원인에 대하여 조사연구 방법을 통하여 분석하고, 드러난 문제점을 해결하기 위한 방안을 모색하는 것이다. 개발도상국의 학교에서 학생들, 특히 여학생들의 부등교 및 중도탈락은 학교교육 정책에 관련된 중요한 이슈다. 네팔의 경우 다양한 원인에 의하여 여학생들의 학교출석 비율이 낮은 수준에 머물고 있으며, 이를 해결하기 위한 중앙정부 차원의 다각적인 노력이 이루어지고 있으나 실효성이 떨어지고 있다. 따라서 지역사회 및 학교, 학생 특성에 기인하는 학생결석 원인을 면밀히 분석하여 교육정책 수립 및 집행에 반영하는 것이 무엇보다 중요하다. 본 연구는 네팔 province-2의 Bara 와 Parsa 지역에 소재는 3개 공립중등학교에 재학 중인 여학생 120명(9-10학년, 나이는 11-19세, 생활가족수는 4-32명)을 대상으로 설문조사를 통하여 설정한 연구문제를 해결하고자 하였다. 설문조사는 현지에서 직접 조사형태로 이루어졌고, 수집된 데이터는 SPSS프로그램을 통해 기술통계 결과를 분석하였다. 조사결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 월경, 계절적 영향, 가족구조, 과제수행 등의 어려움이 여학생들의 결석률에 영향을 미치고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 그 외에도 다양한 변인들이 학교결석률에 영향을 미치고 있지만 앞의 변인들에서 특히 유의한 차이가 발견되었다. 본 연구 결과는 향후 네팔에서 지방교육의 교육환경 및 복지시스템 개선에 필요한 시사점을 제공할 것이다. There are several factors which affect regular presence of female students in school in developing countries. Lower attendance rate is seen as one of the vital hindrance in academic achievement; therefore it is suggested that the female students’ regularity is the direct indicator for the better academic result.The federal government has launched many programs to increase student’s enrollment and keep them regular at school. Some special programs are launched for economically weak and Dalit girls to maintain their regularity to school. The provincial government of province-2 is focusing on “Save girls and Educate girls” special program for female students’ empowerment, but the status of female students are not as better as expected. The female students in public secondary school are found more frequently being absent in comparison to male students. To find out what are the responsible factors causing frequent absenteeism in female students in public secondary school in province-2 of Nepal, a survey was conducted in Bara and Parsa districts out of eight districts of province-2. Data for this study was collected via personal interview of 120 students from the 9th-10th grades of 3 different schools from Bara and Parsa districts of province-2. As the focus point of this study was female students’ absenteeism, all the respondents, i.e. 69 and 51 girl students were from grade 9 and 10 respectively. The questionnaire including quantitative and qualitative questions were given to respondents and discussed to collect their response on demographic factors which had included number of siblings, education level and occupation of parents; physiological factor included menstruation; family and school related factors included parental dispute, household works, family functions, misbehavior of classmates and teachers, perception about school and incomplete homework and natural and geographical factors included seasonal effect and distance of school from residence of students. A descriptive analytical study of data collected by the survey showed that menstruation; seasonal effect; functions at home and incomplete homework had significant relation with absenteeism as they were responsible to increase absenteeism, Whereas, number of siblings, parents’ education and occupation, parental dispute, household activities and distance of school from residence, misbehavior by classmates and teachers had no relation with absenteeism. Female students’ absenteeism is seen as a critical problem in the public secondary school ofprovince-2 of Nepal which has direct relation to one’s academic performance. The students, who miss their classes often, are becoming poor performer which is causing not to attend school again as a vicious cycle.

      • (A) qualitative study on the schooling experiences of foreign language high school graduates

        최연수 Graduate School, Yonsei University 2019 국내석사

        RANK : 232271

        본 연구는 외국어고등학교 졸업생들의 학교경험과 외국어고등학교를 둘러싼 다양한 사회적 담론들이 학생들의 정체성 형성과 미래 전망에 끼친 영향을 탐구하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 이를 위해 먼저 본 연구에서는 엘리트 정체성 형성과 학교선택(school choice)의 이론적 배경을 바탕으로 외국어고등학교의 역사와 관련 담론들의 역사적 추이를 살펴보았다. 본 연구의 구체적인 연구문제는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 학생들이 어떠한 이유와 배경에서 외국어고등학교 진학을 선택하였는가? 둘째, 학생들이 외국어고등학교 재학 당시 수업, 교우관계, 학교 문화를 어떻게 경험하였는가? 셋째, 외국어고등학교 졸업생들에게 재학 당시 교육경험은 어떠한 의미를 가지며, 외국어고등학교에 관한 사회적 담론이 학생들의 정체성에 어떠한 영향을 미치는가? 이들 질문에 답하기 위해 본 연구에서는 외국어고등학교를 졸업한 일곱 명의 ‘명문대’생과의 심층면담을 주 연구방법으로 활용하였다. 수집된 자료를 통해 내린 분석 결과는 다음과 같다. 먼저, 외국어고등학교 학생들의 외국어고 진학 결정에는 중산층 부모의 적극적인 교육적 관여와 엘리트 고등학교로서 외국어고등학교의 사회적 위상이 작용을 한 것으로 드러났다. 둘째, 참여자들은 외국어고등학교에서의 경험이 ‘명문대학교’ 진학에 큰 영향력을 끼쳤다고 보고, 외국어고등학교에서의 학교 경험을 긍정적으로 평가하였다. 그러나 한편, 수집된 면담 자료에 따르면 학생들은 경쟁적이고 가시적인 결과를 중시하는 외국어고등학교에서 수업, 교우관계 등 여러 측면에서 갈등과 모순적인 상황을 경험한 것으로 드러났다. 예컨대, 학생들은 외국어고 내의 학업경쟁에 적극적으로 참여하는 동시에, 지나친 교육경쟁에 비판적인 태도를 보이기도 하였다. 셋째, 학생들은 외고를 둘러싼 여러 사회적 담론과 논란을 인식하고 있었을 뿐만 아니라 엘리트 학생으로서 자아정체성을 구성하는 과정에서 이러한 담론들을 적극적으로 재해석하는 모습을 보였다. 특히 연구 참여자들은 외국어고등학교를 국가 발전에 기여하는 수월성 교육기관으로 설명하였으며, 도구주의적 관점에서 외국어고의 의의를 주장하였다. 또한 연구 참여자들은 외국어고 입학을 공정한 경쟁을 바탕으로 한 능력주의적 성취라 이해하고, 외국어고등학교가 교육격차의 심화에 기여할 수 있다는 주장에 대해 적극적으로 반박하기도 하였다. 더 나아가 연구 참여자들은 개인의 학업성취도를 개개인의 노력과 능력의 산물이라 보았으며, 사회구조적 요인에 대해서는 비교적 관심을 기울이지 않는 모습을 보였다. 본 연구는 위 연구결과를 바탕으로 외국어고등학교를 둘러싼 사회적 담론을 재검토하고자 하였으며, 교육 정책과 정책담론이 학생들의 학교경험과 정체성 형성에 끼치는 영향에 대해 학생들의 관점에서 접근하였다는 데에 그 의의가 있다. This study investigates schooling experiences of Foreign Language High School graduates and how their schooling experiences shape their self-identities and future outlooks. To this aim, this study first investigates the discursive construction of FLHSs as elite high schools and various discourses underpinning the emergence of FLHSs through examining the history of FLHSs and related policies, employing the theoretical lenses of elite identity formation and school choice. By making use of the in-depth interview data, this study then explores how and why the students chose to attend FLHSs, how the students experienced teaching, peer relations and school culture at FLHSs, how the students make sense of their high school experiences and social discourses on FLHSs, and how their interpretations have affected their sense of identity. Major findings reveal that the research participants’ decision to apply to FLHSs were underpinned by discourses of symbolic distinction and public imaginaries of FLHS as academically elite schools. It also turns out that while the research participants in general identified positively with their schooling experiences, the students also experienced constant tensions in peer relations, mainly arising from the competitive and outcome-oriented school culture. Furthermore, the data analysis reveals that the students are not only cognizant of various social discourses surrounding FLHSs but also actively negotiate these discourses as they construct their self-identities as elite students. The students perceived FLHSs to be meritocratic institutions which foster educational excellence and, in effect, contribute to the economic and social development of the country. The interview data further illustrate that the students view their academic achievements as the outcome of individual efforts and abilities, with scant attention paid to the systemic inequalities or broader social forces structuring the education system. Based on these findings, this study attempts to revisit the current dominant social discourses on FLHSs and provide a more nuanced picture of how education policy and policy discourses shape students’ schooling experiences and identities.

      • Comparison of urban space cognitive images of middle schools' circumstance in Gangnam-gu and Nowon-gu

        정호진 Graduate School, Yonsei University 2006 국내석사

        RANK : 232271

        본 연구의 목적은 학교 및 그 주변에 대한 학생들의 인지도 특성을 통한 공간인지 유형을 두 대상지로 나누어 분석하고, 비교 대상지간 학생들의 체험된 이미지의 차이를 도출하여 지역별 학교와 그 주변의 효과적인 개발 방안을 제시하는 것이다.본 논문에서는 강남구 대치동의 1개 중학교와 노원구 하계동의 1개 중학교를 그 대상으로 하여, Lynch(1960)의 인지도(cognitive map) 작성방법을 간략화하여 수행하였다.학생들의 공간인식은 학년의 고저에 따른 뚜렷한 변화를 나타내지 않은 채 대체로 ‘집주위 → 통학로 주변의 가로 → 학교주변 시설’ 로 확대되는 경향을 보이고 있어, 학생 각자의 생활 패턴에 크게 좌우되는 결과를 나타내고 있다.강남구 대청중학교와 노원구 중평중학교 학생들의 응답내용과 Sketch map을 바탕으로 Kevin Lynch의 5요소(District, Landmark, Path, Node, Edge)를 분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. District의 경우 강남구 대청중학교 학생들은 대청중학교, 우성아파트, 선경아파트 순으로 인지했으며, 노원구 중평중학교 학생들은 중평중학교, 중평초등학교, 건영백화점 순으로 인지하는 것으로 나타났다. Landmark의 경우 강남구 대청중학교 학생들은 양재천, 타워팰리스 순으로 인지했으며, 노원구 중평중학교 학생들은 중평중학교, 중평중학교, 브라운스톤 순으로 인지하는 것으로 나타났다. Path의 경우 강남구 대청중학교 학생들은 양재천길, 사이로길, 남부순환도로 순으로 인지했으며, 노원구 중평중학교 학생들은 중평로, 동재로, 동삼로 순으로 인지하는 것으로 나타났다. Node의 경우 강남구 대청중학교 학생들은 도곡사거리, 대치역사거리 순으로 인지했으며, 노원구 중평중학교 학생들은 동삼삼거리, 동재삼거리 순으로 인지하는 것으로 나타났다. Edge의 경우 강남구 대청중학교 학생들은 양재천을 노원구 중평중학교 학생들은 월계로를 인지하는 것으로 나타났다.혐오장소에 대한 선택의 차이는, 강남구 학생들은 방과후 대부분이 학원 및 교육시설 주변에서 시간을 소모함으로 그 공간에 대한 부정적인 인지가 지배적인데 반해, 노원구 학생들은 비교적 자유로운 방과 후 활동으로 인해 학교 주변 시설인 공원이나 놀이터, 가로 등을 혐오장소로 선택하는 것으로 판단된다.향후 학교와 그 주변시설에 대한 만족도 조사를 통해 회귀분석을 실시하여 실제 이용자들의 만족도에 영향을 끼치는 요소에 대한 파악이 이루어져 개선점을 찾아 나아가야 할 것으로 보인다. The purpose of this study is to analyze space-perception toward schools and their outskirts patterns by dividing the two target areas, and to draw up an efficient development plan for regional schools and its circumferences by deducing the differences of comparative target areas students' undergoing images.In this thesis, I chose one middle school in Gangnam-gu, Deachi-dong and one middle school in Nowon-gu, Hagye-dong for the targets, and briefly carried out cognitive map framing method.The students' space-cognitions have no definite changes in accordance with a school year, and generally show a tendency toward enlarged like this. 'neighborhood → street nearby school district → facilities close to school'. It shows that each student's can exert a major degree influence upon his/her life pattern.Be based on Daechung Mid. School in Gangnam-gu, and Jungpyong Mid. School in Nowon-gu students' answers to the queries and the Sketch map, analyzed results of Kevin Lynch's 5 elements (District, Landmark, Path, Node, Edge) are as follows. In case of district, the students of Daechung Mid. School in Gangnam-gu recognize district by this order: Daechung Mid. School, Woosung Apt. and Sungyung Apt, and the students of Jungpyong Mid. School in Nowon-gu recognize district by this order: JungPyong Mid. School, JungPyong Elem. School, Gunyung Dept. Store. In case of Landmark, the students of Daechung Mid. School in Gangnam-gu recognize landmark by this order: angje Stream, Tower Palace, and the students of Jungpyong Mid. School in Nowon-gu recognize landmark by this order: JungPyong Mid. School, JungPyong Park, and Brown Stone. In case of Path, the students of Daechung Mid. School in Gangnam-gu recognize path by this order: Yangjechun way, Sairo way, Nambu Beltway, and the students of Jungpyong Mid. School in Nowon-gu recognize path by this order: Jungpyong way, Donge way, and Dongsam way. In case of Node, the students of Daechung Mid. School in Gangnam-gu recognize node by this order: Dogok Crossroads, Daechi Station Crossroads, and the students of Jungpyong Mid. School in Nowon-gu recognize node by this order: Dongsam Three Corners, Donge Three Corners. In case of Edge, the students of Daechung Mid. School in Gangnam-gu recognize Yangje Stream as edge, and the students of Jungpyong Mid. School recognize Wolgye way as edge.The differences of selecting hatred spaces are like this. Students living in Gangnam-gu spend much time at the educational institutes and around the educational facilities. Contrary to Gangnam-gu's case, students living in Nowon-gu can spend after school hours comparatively freely, so I could estimate that's why they choose park, playground, and street nearby school as their hatred spaces.Hereafter, we must conduct schools and their outskirt satisfaction survey and do regression analysis to find betterment by grasping elements that can exert influences upon real user satisfaction.

      • Impact of school factor-realated incentives on Pupil's absenteeism in Ugandan public primary schools

        이재익 Graduate School of International Studies, Korea Un 2018 국내석사

        RANK : 232271

        ABSTRACT The study is analyzing the impact of school factor-related incentives on pupil’s absenteeism in Ugandan public primary schools. Were it not for the proper understanding of the education system in Uganda, our endeavor to make progress in the quality of education in the country would be easily blocked. Even if pupil’s absenteeism in Uganda has been a critical problem with regard to the quality of public primary education, especially from the perspective of school factor-related incentives, only few studies have systematically examined its associated determinants in conjunction with school factor-related incentives. The one of the main objectives of the study is to examine the impact of school factor-related incentives; and to investigate the adequate solutions to the pupil absenteeism problem as the base of operations by utilizing dataset which is amassed by an international Non–Governmental Organization UWEZO 2012. School factor-related incentives are divided into four categories: School feeding, whether each of the sample schools has a school library, electricity, and safe-water source. By applying OLS regression using the dataset which includes randomly chosen 81,650 children and 2,279 public primary schools, this study examines how those incentives are correlated with pupil’s absenteeism in Ugandan public primary schools. As a result of estimation, the biggest and most effective way of boosting pupil’s attendance is school feeding. It is because that although Uganda has enjoyed one of the highest rates of economic growth over the last decade, 35 percent of the total Ugandan population is living below the poverty line still. Through participating in school, students also can get benefit such as improving their nourishment and a caloric intake per each day, not to mention that they more frequently come to school. Until now, the Government of Uganda haven’t implemented policy regarding providing school feeding system in their public primary schools. The Ugandan government has the tasks of implementing the policy regarding such incentives which have been shown the negative impact on pupil’s absenteeism and progressing guidelines and standards for fulfilment yet; of course, school feeding should be a top priority. Further research is required to investigate this issues in more detail. Through continued advocacy endeavour and support from communities, better education of all school children in the country can be achieved

      • Determinants of school dropout in the rural areas from Honduras : implications for government policies

        Thuman, Samir Guillermo Flores Graduate School of International Studies, Korea Un 2012 국내석사

        RANK : 232271

        The school dropout issue is present at all educational stages and in all countries, however the issue is more complex and significant in Less Developed Countries (LDCs) or Developing Countries where the economic conditions are not entirely favorable. In Honduras more than half of the population is located in the rural areas; setting on which most of the people are living under extreme poverty. The conditions of basic education in the rural areas are unstable; more than 70 per cent of schools are managed by one or two professors. In Honduras the educational systems share the following features: insufficient coverage of primary education, increased access to basic education, and little capacity to retain both the primary and secondary levels. Consequently, the school dropout phenomena is linked to low levels of learning the basic content taught by professors, limited access to schools, school material, qualified teachers, as well as issues like poverty and school distance; which slows the development of the skilled children´s at their early age. Its negative effects are gathered throughout the school year, affecting disproportionately the opportunities of improving their welfare and wellbeing, especially among the poorest sectors slowing the economic development of the society and the country as a whole. School dropout have a direct impact on the society which suffer consequences when students drop out from school, the costs to society in terms of lost tax revenue and the expense of government assistance programs for employment, housing, medical care, and imprisonment represent a significant percentage of the countries budget. The document focal point is the analysis of the main causes of school dropout that take place in the rural areas of Honduras; the analysis aims to identify the factors that forced students to take the decision of dropping out from school. Identifying these causes will allow the implementation of strategies that will reduce school dropout, making children’s continue and finish school; give them higher levels of education, better employment generation which symbolize higher future earnings to keep their families out of poverty and improving their living standards. The most relevant findings based on the analysis done and the data collected were that identifying and understanding the causes of school dropout and the factors that influence children to dropout from school in the rural areas from Honduras is a complex but not an unfeasible assignment; mainly because many other areas of the education system in Honduras, school dropout is subjective to and affected by a variety of personal and organizational factors. However with the theoretical review made to identify the main factors that influence on school dropout gave some valuable approach to identify the starting point of the school dropout phenomenon in the rural areas from Honduras and at the same time it gave a possible explanation which determine what will be the best solution to reduce and control school dropout.

      • Political socialization of middle school students in North Korea : a focus on the personality cult of leaders

        Lee, Sharllen O Graduate School, Korea University 2015 국내석사

        RANK : 232271

        This thesis analyzes the political socialization of North Korean middle school students, including the middle school education system and its curriculum, based on the personality cult (or idolization) of North Korean leaders. This study is the first to examine political socialization at the North Korean middle school level. The thesis assumes that the personality cult in middle schools is important, as the middle school education of North Korean teens becomes the basis for their political orientations as adults. The personality cult of North Korean leaders is analyzed through political socialization and a curriculum designed to control everything being taught at the schools in all grades. Specific daily activities and curricula are designed to idolize the leader who dominates society and to induce complete loyalty in the youngsters. The majority of previous studies on North Korean middle school idolization analyzed only North Korean textbooks. Unlike previous studies, this study includes students’ idolization activities along with textbook analysis to examine the subject in a broader manner. Thus, idolization within regular school curricula and extracurricular activities is explained. This thesis is divided into three major parts: analysis view, idolization education content and idolization activities. The analysis view discusses the point of view used to analyze idolization education in middle schools. It is deemed that North Korean idolization education (in which students learn leaders’ legendary achievements and participate in diverse idolization activities)is the core of political socialization. The portion on middle school idolization education includes a detailed examination of textbook content and in-depth face-to-face interviews with North Korean defectors.

      • Essays on the effects of early school enrollment and legal drinking age on risky behaviors and health outcomes

        신유식 Graduate School, Korea University 2022 국내박사

        RANK : 232271

        In the first chapter, I investigate the impacts of early school enrollment on students’ risky health behaviors. In South Korea, those born in December begin school almost one year earlier than those born in January. Using a fuzzy regression discontinuity design which exploits the school entry rule in South Korea, I find that early school entry leads students to begin drinking and smoking earlier. In addition, it increases the likelihood of drinking and smoking participation over the previous 30 days. However, early school entry has little impact on lifetime sexual intercourse experience. The results of subgroup analysis indicate that my main findings are driven by both girls and boys. The robustness of my results is supported by the use of data from earlier years and various specifications. The second chapter examines the spillover effects of a child’s early school enrollment on their mother’s nervousness. Research has shown that early schooling may have an adverse impact on child development in the short run. If there is such an impact, it may spill over onto mothers, especially in relation to the mother’s mental well-being. To investigate the spillover effects, we utilize the data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. A fuzzy regression discontinuity design is exploited to explore the spillover impacts of a child’s early schooling. We find that a child’s early enrollment increases the level of their mother’s nervousness in the year their child becomes seven. The impact is primarily detected among mothers of girls and mothers from low-income households. Using the responses of the children, we provide suggestive evidence that girls and children from low-income households were suffering from early schooling, and that the impacts might spill over into their mothers. In the last chapter, I analyze the effects of the legal drinking age laws in South Korea on alcohol consumption. In South Korea, an individual is legally allowed access to alcohol from January 1st of the year they turn 19. To investigate whether the regulation effectively restricts alcohol consumption, I compare those who were born around January, but who vary in terms of their status with regard to legal access to alcohol during one specific year. I find no impacts of the regulation on participation in and frequency of alcohol consumption. The findings indicate that strict enforcement and sanctions need to accompany the policy to prevent youth from accessing alcohol. 본 논문은 취학 시기의 효과에 대한 연구와 청소년 음주 규제의 효과에 대한 연구로 구성되어 있다. 1장에서는 취학 시기가 학생들의 건강위험행동에 미치는 영향에 대해 분석한다. 2장에서는 자녀의 취학 시기가 어머니의 정신 건강에 미치는 전이 효과에 대해 분석한다. 3장에서는 한국의 청소년 음주 정책이 개인의 음주 행위에 미치는 영향에 대해 분석한다. 세계의 여러 나라들은 아동이 태어난 이후 몇 개월이 되었는지에 따라 학교에 입학할 수 있는 자격을 부여한다. 새 학기가 시작하는 시점에 최소 입학 연령을 가까스로 넘긴 아동이 바로 입학하는 경우, 반에서 나이가 가장 어린 상태가 된다. 이로 인한 불이익을 피하고자, 일부 부모는 해당 아동의 입학 시기를 1년 연기하는 선택을 한다. 이 경우, 해당 아동은 반에서 나이가 가장 많은 상태가 된다. 위와 같은 입학 시기의 선택이 아동에게 어떠한 영향을 미치는 지 파악하기 위해 현재까지 다수의 실증 연구들이 실시되어 왔다. 1장은 취학 시기가 학생들의 건강위험행동에 어떠한 영향을 미치는 지 분석한다. 구체적으로, 최소 입학 연령을 넘긴 아동이 입학을 미루지 않고 바로 입학하는 선택이 음주, 흡연, 성관계 행위에 어떠한 영향을 미치는 지 분석한다. 분석을 위해, 우리나라 12월 출생자들이 1월 출생자들에 비해 학교에 1년 빠르게 입학하는 점을 이용한다. 12월 출생자들은 1월 출생자들에 비해 1년 빠르게 입학하지만, 반에서 상대적으로 가장 어린 상태가 된다. 반면에, 1월 출생자들은 반에서 나이가 가장 많은 상태가 된다. 두 집단은 비슷한 시기에 출생했음에도, 외생적인 상황으로 인해 입학 시기에 차이가 발생하기 때문에 위의 효과를 추정하는 데 이용될 수 있다. 회귀불연속 방법론을 사용하여 추정한 결과, 학교를 1년 빠르게 입학하는 것은 음주, 흡연 시작 시기를 앞당기는 것으로 나타났다. 또한, 1년 빠르게 입학하는 것은 최근 30일 동안 음주, 흡연했을 확률을 상승시키는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 남학생과 여학생 모두에게 나타났다. 2장은 최소 입학 연령을 넘긴 아동이 바로 입학하는 선택을 하는 것이 어머니의 정신 건강에 어떠한 영향을 미치는 지 분석한다. 다수의 문헌에 따르면, 해당 아동은 정서적, 신체적 발달 상태에 이점이 있는 급우들과 경쟁하기 때문에, 학업 성취도와 학교 적응에 있어 어려움을 겪는 가능성이 높은 것으로 보고되어 왔다. 이러한 부정적인 영향은 아동에게 국한되는 것이 아니라 가족 구성원에게도 영향을 미칠 수 있다. 특히, 대부분의 가정의 주양육자인 어머니의 정신 건강에 부정적인 영향을 미칠 가능성이 있다. 본 연구는 이를 분석하는 위해 호주의 학교 입학 규정에 따라 발생되는 외생적인 상황을 이용하였다. 분석 결과, 자녀의 1년 빠른 입학은 어머니의 불안감을 상승시키는 것으로 나타났다. 이질성 분석 결과, 이러한 영향은 여학생의 어머니와 소득이 낮은 가구의 어머니에게 두드러지는 것으로 나타났다. 자녀의 응답을 통해 분석한 결과, 여학생과 소득이 낮은 가구의 학생인 경우, 실제로 학교 적응에 어려움을 겪는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 학교에 1년 빠르게 입학하는 것이 아동에게 부정적인 영향을 미치고, 어머니의 정신 건강에도 부정적인 영향을 미칠 수 있음을 시사한다. 3장은 한국의 청소년 음주 규제의 효과성에 대해 분석한다. 한국의 청소년 보호법에 따르면, 만 19세가 되는 해의 1월 1일을 맞이하기 전까지는 청소년으로 규정되며, 주류 구입과 주류 판매 업소 출입이 제한된다. 이 정책의 효과성을 분석하기 위해 소위 빠른 년생 제도가 시행되던 시기의 1, 2월 출생자를 이용한다. 3월~12월생과 이듬해 1, 2월생은 같은 해에 초등학교에 입학하여 같은 해에 고등학교를 졸업한다. 3월~12월생은 대학교 1학년이 되는 해의 1월 1일부터 청소년 음주 규제의 적용을 받지 않는다. 반면에, 이듬해 1, 2월생은 해당 연도에 여전히 음주 규제를 적용 받게 된다. 따라서, 해당 연도의 3월~12월생과 1, 2월생의 음주 행위를 비교하여 청소년 보호법의 효과를 분석하였다. 분석 결과, 1, 2월생이 음주 규제의 적용을 받음에도 불구하고, 음주 참여 여부와 횟수에 대해서 3~12월생과 크게 차이가 없는 것으로 나타났다.

      • Confucianism and its cultural impacts : a comparative study on middle school bullying between China and Japan

        Yunbo Bai Graduate School, Yonsei University 2021 국내석사

        RANK : 232271

        School bullying has become a social problem all over the world. In recent years, the problem of bullying in middle schools in China has become more and more serious, and the severity of its consequences has attracted the attention of the Chinese government. In the 21st century, Japan is also one of the countries with serious school bullying problems. According to the theory of social ecological system, we can infer that the participants of school bullying are affected by various surrounding environmental factors. As a macro environmental factor, the culture in society has a subtle influence on students' cognition. As we all know, China and Japan are very close geographically and have conducted many cultural exchanges since ancient times. There are cultural similarities between the two countries, especially, the Confucian culture. So does this mean that the reason for the similar behavior of middle school’s bullying in China and Japan is that they are influenced by the similar Confucian culture? Therefore, this paper will take the participants of bullying on middle schools in China and Japan as the research objects, and mainly analyze the cultural reasons of middle school’s bullying in both countries. Comparative research methods, case analysis methods, literature research methods and qualitative research methods are the main research methods used in this article. The second chapter of the thesis first introduces the differences between Chinese and Japanese Confucian cultures, especially in four aspects: shame culture, harmonious culture, collectivism and family culture. At the same time, it introduces the new development of these four cultures in the two countries and the impacts on the current Chinese and Japanese society. The third chapter of the thesis lists cases of bullying in middle schools in China and Japan, and carefully analyzes the psychology of the participants. It is found that although the behaviors of bullying participants in Chinese and Japanese schools are similar, they have different starting points. Therefore, the fourth chapter further analyzes the psychological factors of the three roles in the phenomenon of school bullying in China and Japan, as well as the social and cultural reasons that affect the psychological factors. Through comparative research methods, it is found that the different Confucian cultures in Chinese and Japanese societies have different impacts on the psychology. Although these factors are derived from traditional Confucian culture, they already have had special new developments in China and Japan. Therefore, this article concludes that although the phenomenon of school bullying in China and Japan seems to be the same, the Confucian culture of China and Japan has had impacts on school bullying in China and Japan respectively. Exploring the cultural background of school bullying in China and Japan can enable us to better understand the causes of school bullying and provide some ideas for the future countermeasures of school bullying in the two countries. It has important reference value for the further prevention of school bullying. At the same time, although Confucian culture has its meaning as a traditional culture, it still requires us that in the future China and Japan should constantly reflect on traditional culture, adjusting the traditional culture to new social needs, and better guide people's lives at the level of consciousness.

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