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This study aims to discuss some issues on ellipsis from a viewpoint of information structure. Section 2 deals with ellipsis from a syntactic perspective, mainly based on Winkler(2017). It turns out that major types of syntactic ellipsis, such as gapping, VP-ellipsis, and right node raising, are directly affected by information structural factors, i.e. givenness and contrastiveness. Section 3 pays attention to ellipsis in a pragmatic sense by using the framework of Choi(2016)`s information structure. Ellipsis is closely related to discourse-old (or given) status, or topic in Lambrecht(1994)`s sense. It is shown that relatively new element, i.e. focus, can be omitted in the sentence form in particular contexts, with the proposition the sentence conveys containing focus intact.
Little research has been conducted on the probable correlates betweenlanguage and speech disorders. This study is mainly aimed to provide a plausibleneurological explanation on the probable correlates between developmental stutteringand conduction aphasia based on the recent findings from neuro-imagingresearch associated with the neural bases of the respective speech and languagedisorder. The explanation can be summarized as the following: Both disorders,although seemingly different, can be considered as disorders in sensori-motor integrationwhose neuro-anatomical area is arcuate fasciculus(AF) or sylvian fissure atthe parietal-temporal boundary(Spt). Different symptoms associated with each ofthe disorders can be explained by the notion that while developmental stutteringviewed as a disorder due to the “reduced” function in sensori-motor integration,conduction aphasia can be considered as a disorder due to the “disrupted” functionin sensori-motor integration.
The aim of this paper is to investigate the syntactic-semantic characteristics of two non-canonical constructions in Middle Korean: the non-canonical adnominal clause and the non-canonical noun phrase. The non-canonical adnominal clause includes the specific NP inside the clause, which is co-indexed by head noun. So this clause is different from the internally headed relative clause which includes the non-referential NP co-indexed by head noun. The non-canonical NP is the complex NP which includes NP marked by case except for the genitive without verbal predicate. So this NP is similar to the nominal predicate clause without copula. These definitions on the non-canonical constructions in Middle Korean are even more strict than ones of previous research. According to these definitions, we pointed out that various types of examples have been misunderstood as the non-canonical constructions in Middle Korean.
The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the syntactic complexity of international graduate students majoring in Korean language education compared with the syntactic complexity of Korean native speakers. The corpus of each group was constructed using academic term papers and educational journals. The results of this study are summarized as follows; the syntactic complexity of the two groups was measured in terms of sentence length and sentence extension. As a result, first, the number of words and the number of syllables per sentence of Korean native speakers were higher than those of foreign students, and there were statistical differences. We can see that Korean native speakers make longer sentences than foreign students and produce more syntactically complicated sentences. Secondly, as a result of measuring the syntactic complexity in the extended dimension of the sentence, the difference between the two groups was observed only in the number of clauses per sentence and the number of embedded clause per sentence. In order to examine the differences of the embedded clauses in detail, we divided them into noun clauses, adnominal clauses, and adverbial clauses. It is found that the complexity of sentence expansion between Korean native speakers and foreign students is due to adnominal clause and adverbial clause per sentence. In particular, it is found that the adnominal sentence has the greatest influence on the difference of syntactic complexity due to sentence expansion between the two groups. In this study, it was necessary to examine the use of the adnominal clauses in two groups. As a result of examining the types and use of patterns of the adnominal clauses used in each group, it is confirmed that foreign students can not use a variety of nouns compared to Korean native speakers.
Die Kernpunkte meiner Abhandlung sind wie folgt: ①Ich halte die Entstehung der sog. Protosprache schon vor 1-2 Milionen. Jahren bei Homo erectus fur moglich. Dieser Prototyp von Sprache besaß noch keine Grammatik (Syntax) und glich daher eher eine Art schwer verstandlichen Kauderwelschs. Dieser Prototyp liefert daher auch die Einfachsprache, welche noch im wesentlichen fur das so schopferische Off-line Denken unzureichend war. Dies ware demnach auch die zutreffende Antwort auf die folgenden Fragen: warum die Menschenvorfahren in einem so lange andauernden kulturellen Stausituationen befanden? Warum die Neandertaler ein so einfaches Leben fuhrten und ausstarben? ②Moderne Sprache mit komplexer Syntax entwickelte sich erst relativ spat -vor ca. 40,000 Jahren-bei Homo sapiens sapiens(Cro-Magnon). Syntax ist ein System von grammatischen Prinzipien, welche das ursprunglich das unendlich schopferische Off-line Denken ermoglichten, vollig frei von jeglichen raumlichen und zeitlichen Beschrankungen. Anhand der Syntax konnte man vor ca. 35,000 Jahren zum erstenmal hochentwickelte kulturelle Leistungen hervorbringen, ein Durchbruch vergleichbar mit dem Big-Bang.
This paper aims to explain the role and nature of ``X`` in X+katta. To achieve this, I compare the argument structure and meaning of katta with those of X+katta. Also, this paper tries to examine the synchronic status of X+katta. To achieve this, I investigate the stage of word`s category change. The followings are the discussions in this paper. First, the basic meaning of katta is ``[comparison]· [same]`` which is premised on the ``act of comparison``. I postulate semantic change such as ``[comparison]· [same]`` into ``[comparison]· [similar]``, ``[comparison]· [similar]`` into ``[figurative]``. Second, I divide X+katta into N+katta and ADV+katta. [figurative] of N+katta is originated in ① comparison attribute NP3 in argument of katta, ② comparison attribute NP3 which has abstract meaning in argument of katta, ③ comparison attribute NP2 which has figurative meaning in argument of katta. Meanwhile ADV of ADV+katta has <emphasis> meaning. Finally, I explain that the stage of category change of X+katta is ``phrase construction``->…gwa eclipsis form` -> ``collocation construction`` -> ① ``collocation construction``, ② ``collocation construction`` which gains [figurative] meaning. Furthermore I confirm affixation of katta. I wish that this discussion is important because of specification about the argument structure and meaning of compound verbs such as X+katta.
Eonmunjamo is contained in Hunmongjahoe compiled by Choi, Se-Jin. However, it is apparent that Choi was not the author of Eonmunjamo. This makes it an important issue to find out who was the original writer of Eonmunjamo and when it was written. Hunminjeongeum is a commentary on Hunminjeongeum. One thing that should be noted is that this book was compiled three years later after Eonmun had been made public. This article presumes that there was another commentary written before Hunminjeongeum. When Eonmun was made public, King Sejong is argued here to create the commentary as a learning manual and distribute it. On the face of the different sounds of Sino-Korean, he could have a need of adjusting the manual, which prompted him to compile a new book, which is Hunminjeongeum. A careful reading of Eonmunjamo reveals several pieces of evidence for the claim that it was written earlier than Hunminjeongeum: the name of “Eonmun”, the arrangement of the letters, and the sounds of Sino-Korean, etc. It is concluded that the unattested study-manual that was written at the time of making out Eonmun was the source of Eonmunjamo.
The aim of this paper is to establish conceptualization and classification of reduction that can better capture the gradual form reduction phenomenon by re-examining concept of abbreviation based on ‘The Korean Corpus of Spontaneous Speech'. The concept of reduction modified by re-examining abbreviation is gradual form erode phenomenon of acoustic and phonological dimension, which is not always correlate with semantic changing or grammaticalization. Although aspect of reduction has general phonological tendency, this phenomenon is very different for each word. Reduction is classified with acoustic reduction and phonological reduction based on whether or not a segmental sound domains. Acoustic reduction is erode of non-segmental sound dimentions such as the temporal domains or spectral domains. Phonological reduction is erode of segmental sound dimentions that is subclassifed as a feature reduction, phoneme reduction and syllable reduction.
This article conducts a bibliographic and linguistic study on Hakpong kim sŏnsaeng haengjang (‘An Annotation of the Behaviors of Great Scholar Kim Hakpong' 鶴峯金先生行狀), which is not a well-known source in Korean historical linguistics. The annotation book is a one-volume manuscript translated from Classical Chinese into Korean vernacular in 1770 by Kim Chuguk, the 7th eldest son of the eldest son's family of Kim Hakpong. Evidence from the number of handwritings, types of misspelling and the use of a certain punctuation mark, however, indicates that the book is not the original version, but a copied one. According to some intra- and extra-linguistic evidence, the transcribers must be Kim Chuguk's family members. Based on the bibliographic characteristics of the annotation, in order to reveal its linguistic value I have researched the following topics: its dialectal background; its orthographical, phonological, grammatical and lexical characteristics; and its translational aspect.
This paper proposes that the names of the country Sinla in the earlier period of the kingdom, like Salo (斯盧), Selapel (徐羅伐) do not originate from the meaning of ‘east side (東方),' but from the meaning of ‘new heaven and earth.' Numerous attempts have been made to clarify the meanings and forms of the names of Sinla. However, these attempts have not been successful. Comparing forms and meanings of the various names of Sinla by way of ‘ladder-form' investigation, we arrive at the conclusion that /*sʌy/ tentatively reconstructed form of sa (斯) part of *Salo corresponds to sae (新) in Modern Korean, and /*nV/ tentatively reconstructed form of lo (盧) of Salo corresponds to nwuli, nwi, or nwu (世上) etc. in Modern Korean. It is evident that the phonemic shape of /*sʌy/ is similar to /sɛ/ corresponding to the meaning of the first part of Sinla (新羅), not to correspond to ‘eastern' meaning. And the second part of Salo can be reconstructed as /*nV/, which can explain the forms of nwuli (by adding suffix *li), nwi, or nwu in Modern Korean. Historical facts also support the /*sʌy/ hypothesis. Samkwuksaki (三國史記) described the event that the king of Mahan (馬韓) reprimanded the delegates of Cinhan (辰韓) [indicating Sinla] for not providing tributes in the year of Hyekkesey (赫居世) 38. This means that Sinla was a sort of subject state, presupposing an event of other country's invading and conquering the pre-Sinla territory, and estabishing a new country. So, the word meaning ‘new' was introduced in its name. The mythical approach also suggests that some other country's invading event took place before that time.