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To study some informations on the morphogenesis and developmental process of the coronal suture in rats, the author performed daily oral administrations of demethylchlorotetracycline, a kind of tetracycline group, in the amount of 30mg/kg of body weight to the female rats from the 7th day of pregnancy to the time of delivery. Microscopic evaluation was undertaken on the fetal rats in the experimental group. The subject of this experiment were defined to the fetal rats of each group at 1st, 3rd, 7th and 14th day after birth. All these fetal rats were sacrificed and the heads were removed. All the tissue sections were fixed with 10% formalin, Bouin' and Carnoy' solution and then stained by Hematoxylin-Van Gieson stain, or Feulgen and Rossenbeck, Periodic acid Schiff, and prepared for alcian blue reaction. The results were as follows; 1. The directions of osteogenic fibers were arranged irregulary during first 3 days, but after the 7th day they tended to change radial directions like control group. 2. The density of deep stained cells by Feulgen-Rossenbeck reaction were shown less in the experimental group than that in the control group in first 3 days, but there was shown no significant difference between both groups after the 7th day. 3. PAS reaction in early stage was generally negative in the experimental group unlike as in the control group, but diffuse reaction was observed in the loose middle zone like as in the control group after 14th day. 4. Alcian blue reaction was negative in cambial zone, and slightly positive in uniting zone compared with control group in early stage. After 14th day, however. there was observed a tendency of moderately positive reaction.
This paper examines the architecture of the second language (L2) lexicon through the same-translation effect (Jiang, 2000, 2002) with reference to L2 proficiency. The same-translation effect claims that non-native speakers make semantic overgeneralization, due to the influence of first language (L1) conceptual information on the L2 lexicon. Despite its theoretical plausibility, the empirical justification of the effect (Jiang, 2002, 2004) has been limited to a single proficiency level of L2 learners. Thus, this paper examines whether L2 learners with lower proficiency show a greater L1 influence effect than those with higher proficiency. Three groups of participants (Korean intermediate-ESL learners, Korean advanced-ESL learners, and native speakers of English) completed an off-line semantic-relatedness judgment task on pairs of English words presented in sentences. Results reveal that the same-translation effect emerged in both intermediate and advanced groups; however, the intermediate-ESL group demonstrated weaker L1 influence than the advanced-ESL group, although the difference between the two groups was not significant.
The goal of this study is to investigate the value of second language empirical evidence with respect to the understanding of theoretical linguistic constructs. For this, I revisit unaccusativity (i.e., the presence of two types of intransitive verbs in mental representations) with respect to two competing theories of unaccusativity (i.e., dichotomy versus continuum). The first (L1) / the second (L2) knowledge of derivational morphology (particularly, word formation), a rarely tested empirical domain, is examined for empirical falsification of the two theories. 104 participants from three populations (two L2 English groups with different levels of English proficiency and an L1 English group) evaluated the acceptability of decontextualized words containing the –er suffix in English. Correlational analyses revealed that, in the –er suffixation, both L1 and L2 evidence supports the idea of characterizing unaccusativity as a continuum, not as a dichotomy. L2 empirical evidence is valuable not only for language development but also for theory construction.
Lee, Junkyu. 2010. A Structural Account of Intrasentential Code-switching in Korean-English Bilingual Speech. The Linguistic Association of Korea Journal. 18(3). 93-110. This study investigates intrasentential code-switching patterns by Korean-English bilinguals with special reference to their structural characterizations. An examination of Korean-English code-switching is theoretically significant since Korean and English have distinct parameters: Korean is head-final whereas English is head-initial. Data were collected from natural speech of three pairs of Korean-English bilingual speakers. Result showed that the bilinguals produced lexical items which have both a preposition and a postposition in a single word, which seems to stem from the interactions between two different head-parameters of the languages. The findings pose an empirical challenge to the proposed formulations in the literature, providing a new insight into intrasentential code-switching that cannot be found in the same language parameter.
This study investigates online semantic integration patterns of second language (L2) speakers in processing familiar compounds in comparison with those of first language (L1) speakers. Particularly, adopting the Competition-Among-Relations-In-Nominals theory (Gagné & Shoben 1997, 2002) as a theoretical framework, this study examines whether L1 and L2 speakers demonstrate relation priming, in which previous exposure to a compound (e.g., tennis court) facilitates the processing of a subsequent compound (e.g., tennis shoes) which has the same first constituent and the same semantic relation. In an online lexical sense decision task, an L1 and an L2 group were asked to judge whether familiar compounds, operationalized as the existence in a large English corpus, had a sensible interpretation. Results revealed the effect of relation priming in both L1 and L2 group, indicating that a modifier in a compound plays a key role in online semantic integrations of two constituents in the compound. The finding also suggests that compound processing requires an obligatory process of selecting the interpretable relations between two nouns to establish a unified representation. An implication for the architecture of the lexicon was also discussed in relation to lexicalized and novel compounds.