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The hydrological components of a sandy loam soil of nearly level in Chuncheon over 30 years were computed using the E-DiGOR model. Daily simulations were carried out for each year during the period of 1980 to 2009 using standard climate data. Reference evapotranspiration and potential soil evaporation based on Penman-Montheith model were higher during May to August because of the higher atmospheric evaporative demand. Actual soil evaporation was mainly found to be a function of the amount and timing of rainfall, and presumably soil wetness in addition to atmospheric demand. Drainage was affected by rainfall and increased with a higher amount of precipitation and soil water content. Excess drainage occurred throughout rainy months (from July to September), with a peak in July. Therefore, leaching may be a serious problem in the soils all through these months. The 30-year average annual reference evapotranspiration and potential soil evaporation were 951.5 ㎜ and 714.2 ㎜, respectively. The actual evaporation from bare soil varied between 396.9-528.4 ㎜ and showed comparatively lesser inter-annual variations than drainage. Annual drainage rates below 120 cm soil depth ranged from 477.8 to 1565.9 ㎜. The long-term mean annual drainage-loss was approximately two times higher than actual soil evaporation.
The hydrological components of a sandy loam soil of nearly level in Chuncheon over 30 years were computed using the E-DiGOR model. Daily simulations were carried out for each year during the period of 1980 to 2009 using standard climate data. Reference evapotranspiration and potential soil evaporation based on Penman-Montheith model were higher during May to August because of the higher atmospheric evaporative demand. Actual soil evaporation was mainly found to be a function of the amount and timing of rainfall, and presumably soil wetness in addition to atmospheric demand. Drainage was affected by rainfall and increased with a higher amount of precipitation and soil water content. Excess drainage occurred throughout rainy months (from July to September), with a peak in July. Therefore, leaching may be a serious problem in the soils all through these months. The 30-year average annual reference evapotranspiration and potential soil evaporation were 951.5 mm and 714.2 mm, respectively. The actual evaporation from bare soil varied between 396.9-528.4 mm and showed comparatively lesser inter-annual variations than drainage. Annual drainage rates below 120 cm soil depth ranged from 477.8 to 1565.9 mm. The long-term mean annual drainage-loss was approximately two times higher than actual soil evaporation.
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>The tremendous amount of food waste from diverse sources is an environmental burden if disposed of inappropriately. Thus, implementation of a biorefinery platform for food waste is an ideal option to pursue (e.g., production of value-added products while reducing the volume of waste). The adoption of such a process is expected to reduce the production cost of biodegradable plastics (e.g., compared to conventional routes of production using overpriced pure substrates (e.g., glucose)). This review focuses on current technologies for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from food waste. Technical details were also described to offer clear insights into diverse pretreatments for preparation of raw materials for the actual production of bioplastic (from food wastes). In this respect, particular attention was paid to fermentation technologies based on pure and mixed cultures. A clear description on the chemical modification of starch, cellulose, chitin, and caprolactone is also provided with a number of case studies (covering PHA-based products) along with a discussion on the prospects of food waste valorization approaches and their economic/technical viability.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> The tremendous amount of food waste (FW) is produced from diverse sources. </LI> <LI> To resolve FW problems, implementation of a biorefinery platform for FW is essential. </LI> <LI> The adoption of such a process can produce value-added products while reducing the waste. </LI> <LI> This review focuses on current technologies for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). </LI> <LI> Prospects of FW valorization are discussed along with their economic/technical viability. </LI> </UL> </P> <P><B>Graphical abstract</B></P> <P>[DISPLAY OMISSION]</P>
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Colloids have been recognized to enhance the migration of strongly-sorbing contaminants. However, few field investigations have examined combined colloid transport via surface runoff and subsurface flows. In a headwater catchment of the upper Yangtze River, a 6m (L) by 4m (W) sloping (6°) farmland plot was built by cement walls to form no-flow side boundaries. The plot was monitored in the summer of 2014 for the release and transport of natural colloids via surface runoff and subsurface flows (i.e., the interflow from the soil-mudrock interface and fracture flow from the mudrock-sandstone interface) in response to rain events. The water sources of the subsurface flows were apportioned to individual rain events using a two end-member model (i.e., mobile pre-event soil water extracted by a suction-cup sampler <I>vs</I>. rainwater (event water)) based on <I>δ</I> <SUP>18</SUP>O measurements. For rain events with high preceding soil moisture, mobile pre-event soil water was the main contributor (generally >60%) to the fracture flow. The colloid concentration in the surface runoff was 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than that in the subsurface flows. The lowest colloid concentration was found in the subsurface interflow, which was probably the result of pore-scale colloid straining mechanisms. The rainfall intensity and its temporal variation govern the dynamics of the colloid concentrations in both surface runoff and subsurface flows. The duration of the antecedent dry period affected not only the relative contributions of the rainwater and the mobile pre-event soil water to the subsurface flows but also the peak colloid concentration, particularly in the fracture flow. The <10μm fine colloid size fraction accounted for more than 80% of the total suspended particles in the surface runoff, while the colloid size distributions of both the interflow and the fracture flow shifted towards larger diameters. These results highlight the need to avoid the application of strongly-sorbing agrochemicals (e.g., pesticides, phosphorus fertilizers) immediately before rainfall following a long no-rain period because their transport in association with colloids may occur rapidly over long distances via both surface runoff and subsurface flows with rainfall.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Subsurface flow was apportioned into rainwater and mobile pre-event soil water. </LI> <LI> The duration of no-rain period affects peak colloid concentration. </LI> <LI> Rainfall intensity and its temporal variation govern colloid discharge dynamics. </LI> </UL> </P>
이 실험은 담도가 폐쇄되었을 때 결장 점막내장크롬친화세포의 미세구조 변화를 관찰하기 위하여 시행하였다. 실험동물로는 체중 1.5Kg내외의 건강한 수토끼를 사용하였으며, 이를 정상군, 수술대조군 및 수술군(총담관결찰군)으로 나누어, 수술대조군 과 수술군은 1일, 3일, 5일, 7일 및 14일군으로 구분하였다. 수술군 동물은 ether로 흡입마취시킨후, 십이지장 초부에 개구하는 총담관을 봉합사로 이중 결찰하였으며, 수술대조군은 수술군과 같은 수술 과정을 거치되 총담관을 결찰하지 않았다. 각 실험 동물을 ether 마취하에 복부를 절개하고, 회장과 결장 이행부에서 결장 쪽으로 약 3cm 떨어진 곳에 결장 조직을 절취하였다. 절취된 조직은 2.5% glutaraldehyde- 1.5% paraformaldehyde (0.1M Millonig's phosphate buffer, pH 7.3)에 1차 고정한 후, 1% osmium tetroxide액(0.1M Millonig's phosphate buffer, pH 7.3)에 2차 고정하였다. 고정된 조직은 탈수 과정을 거쳐 araldite 혼합액에 포매한 다음, 60-70cm 두께의 얇은 절편을 만들었다. 각 절편은 uranyl acetate와 lead citrate로 대조염색한 후, JEM 100CX-Ⅱ 전자 현미경으로 관찰하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. 담관결찰 후 1일군부터 장크롬친화세포의 핵막 만입현상이 관찰되기 시작하였으며, 시일이 경과함에 따라 점차로 심하였다. 수술 1일군의 경우 핵내의 미세섬유의 다발이 관찰되었다. 2. 수술군의 경우, 시일이 경과함에 따라 세포질내에 자유리보소체들이 군데군데 모여 밀집되어 있는 모습이 자주 관찰되었다. 3. 미세사는 수술 3일군 이후 현저히 증가하여 수술 7일군과 14일군의 경우에는 핵 주위와 세포질내에서 많이 관찰되었다. 4. 전자밀도가 다양한 액포 또는 공포가 수술 1일군부터 자주 관찰되기 시작하였으며, 시일이 경과함에 따라 더 많이 관찰되었다. 위의 여러 사실로 보아 담관이 폐쇄되면 결장 점막내 장크롬친화세포는 시일이 경과함에 따라 점차 세포활성이 저하된다고 생각된다. This experiment was performed to study the morphological responses of the enterochromaffin cells in the colonic mucosa of rabbit following bile duct ligation. Adult male rabbit were divided into normal. sham operation, and experimental groups. Bile duct ligation was performed under ether anesthesia and animals were sacrificed on the 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after operation. Mucosal specimens from the colon, were prefixed with 2.5% glutarldehyde-1.5% paraformldehyde(0.1 M Millonig's phosphate buffer, pH7.3), post-fixed in the 1% osmium tetroxide(0.1 M Millonig's phosphate buffer, pH 7.3), and embedded within araldite mixture. The sections were cut on a LKB-V ultratome, and observed under a JEM 100CX-II electron microscope. The results were as follow; 1. Irregularities of the nuclei of the enterochromaffin cells were noticed from the 1 day after bile duct ligation. The intranuclear filamentous inclusions were observed on the 1 day after bile duct ligation. 2. Aggregated free ribosomes were more frequently observed in the cytoplasmic matrix from the 1 day after bile duct ligation. 3. Amount of the microfilamentas in the enterochromaffin cell was significantly increased form the 3 day after bile dict ligation and they were more frequently observed in the vicinity of the nucleus. 4. Vacuoles of various electron dinsities in the enterochromaffin cell were increased in number from the 1 day after bile duct ligation. The above findings refer that the bile duct ligation depresses the activity of the enterochromaffin cell in rabbit colonic mucosa.
본 연구에서는 시설하우스 폐양액이 고추의 생육과 양분 흡수에 미치는 영향을 평가하고 폐양액 관주시 부가적으로 얻을 수 있는 관개 효과를 산출함으로써 폐양액의 토양 시비에 따른 농업적 가치를 평가하였다. 시설하우스 폐양액의 토양 곽주시 Ca, Mg, K 등 염류의 증가로 인하여 pH와 EC는 상승하였고, 총질소는 암모늄태 질소와 질산태 질소의 증가와 함께 처리 후 100 mg kg^(-1) 이상 증가하였다. 고추 생육은 화학 비료 70% 및 폐양액 30% 혼합처리구와 화학비료 50% 및 폐양액 50% 혼합치리구에서 양호하였으며 양분 흡수도 동일한 경향을 나타내었다. 고추 수확량은 화학비료 70%, 및 폐양액 30% 혼합처리구에서 가장 높은 것으로 조사되었다. 1일 발생되는 폐양액(288 L 10 a^(-1)day^(-1))을 토양에 시용하여 증발산되는 수분을 보충할 경우 최고 409.86 m²의 면적을 관개할 수 있는 것으로 산출되었다. 이상의 결과를 통해 폐양액의 토양 처리는 화학비료 대체 효과와 폐양액의 정화 효과를 동시에 얻을 수 있으며 적정량 사용시 주변 환경에 미치는 영향을 최소화하면서 지속적인 처리가 가능할 것으로 판단되었다. Waste of the hydroponic solution from the plastic film house cultivation was recycled to grow the red pepper(Capsicum annum L.) in upland fields as supplement for plant nutrients and irrigation sources. Application of hydroponic waste solution increased the pH and EC of the soils, coupled with the increases in the concentrations of exchangeable cations(Ca, Mg, and K), total nitrogen, NH₄-N, and NO₃-N. Growth and yield of red pepper were highest when the treatment of chemical fertilizer(70%) was combined with hydroponic waste solution(30%). Amounts of the daily producing hydroponic waste solution were 2,880 L ha^(-1) day^(-1) from the experimental facilities and this could irrigate 409.86 m?of area to compensate for the amount of water loss by evapotranspiration(3%). The overall results demonstrated that hydroponic waste solution could be recycled as plant nutrients and irrigation water resources for enhancing soil fertility and environmental quality.
The objective of this research was to develop the adsorbent for heavy metals by activating the bark sample. Barks from pine tree with diameters of 2~4 mm were activated in the muffle furnace under a high relative humidity condition at temperatures of 600~900℃. The removal efficiency of the activated bark (ACTBARK) for Cu and Cd was temperature dependent showing the order of 900℃ > 800℃ > 700℃ > 600℃. The critical temperature was considered to be 900℃ to become an efficient adsorbent for Cu and Cd. The bark samples activated at temperatures lower than 700℃ showed a less removal efficiency than the crude bark The ACTBARK activated at 900℃ removed more Cu and Cd from solution than the commercial activated carbon and charcoal. The ACTBARK (activated at 900℃) adsorbed all of the Cu and Cd in solution with concentrations less than 150 mg/L. The selectivity of the ACTBARK was in the order of Cu>Zn>Ni>Pb>Fe>Cd>Mn.
본 연구는 부산물 비료의 부숙도 판정 기준 설정을 위한 기초자료를 구축하기 위하여 우리 나라에서 가장 널리 사용되고 있는 수피 부산물 비료와 돈분 부산물 비료를 대상으로 원재료로부터 완제품 생산까지 부숙단계별 시료의 물리적·화학적·생물학적 특성의 변화를 측정하기 위해 수행되었으며, 그 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 부숙이 완료됨에 따라 tvl 부산물 비료의 경우 유색(black)으로, 돈분 부산물의 경우 암갈색으로 변화되었으며, 수피 부산물의 경우는 43일경과 후에, 돈분 부산물의 경우는 40일경과 후에 원 시료의 냄새가 사라지고 퇴비취가 나는 것으로 나타났다. 완숙된 수피 부산물 비료의 pH와 EC는 각각 pH6.5와 1dS·m^(-1)에서 안정화되었으며, 돈분 부산물 비료의 경우는 pH7.2와 6dS·m^(-1)에서 안정화되었다. 부숙이 진행됨에 따라 유기물함량은 점차 감소하여 수피 부산물 비료의 경우 120일 경과후 62%, 돈분 부산물 비료의 경우 40일경과 후 59%로 안정화되었다. 부숙 기간 중 총 질소의 함량은 수피 부산물 비료의 경우 1.1∼1.5%, 돈분 부산물의 경우 1.5∼2.2%를 유지하였다. 두 가지 비료 모두에서 암모니아태 질소는 초기에 증가하다 중기 이후 감소하였고, 질산태 질소는 계속적으로 증가하였으며, 무기태 질소의 전체 함량은 증가하였다. 부숙이 완료된 퇴비의 유기물/질소비는 수피 부산물 비료의 경우 25에서, 돈분 부산물 비료의 경우 27에서 안정화되었다. 부숙이 진행됨에 따라 CEC는 증가하였는데, 완숙단계에서 수피 부산물 비료의 경우 87cmol(+)·㎏^(-1)으로, 돈분 부산물 비료의 경우 70cmol(+)·㎏^(-1)으로 증가하였다. 조섬유 중 Cellulose와 Hemicellulose는 부숙이 진행됨에 따라 감소하였으나, Lignin의 비율은 점차 증가하였다. 부산물비료의 부숙단계별 시료의 특성변화는 부산물 비료의 부숙도를 평가하는 지표로 활용될 수 있을 것으로 판단된다. Objective of this research was to draw the basic criteria of the compost maturity evaluation., by assessing the stability of chemical and physical properties of the bark and piggery manure by-product composts during the composting. Colors of the mature composts were black and dark brown for the bark and piggery manure by-product composts, respectively. Good earthy odor was detected for both by-product composts after approximately 40 days composting, by which odors of the original raw materials were disappeared. pH and EC of the mature bark: compost were stabilized at 6.5 and 1dS/m, respectively. The respective values for the piggery compost were stabilized at 7.2 and 6dS/m. Organic matter contents were decreased with time to be stabilized at about 60% at the end of composting. During composting, total N contents of the bark and piggery composts were maintained at 1.1∼1.5%, and 1.5∼2.2%, respectively. For both fertilizers, NH₄-N contents were increased at the initial stage bur. decreased after the middle stages of decomposition, resulting in the increase of NO₃-N contents. Total inorganic N contents were increased with time. C/N ratios of both mature composts were stabilized at 25∼27. CEC of the bark compost was increased logarithmically with time and that of mature compost was 87cmol(+)/㎏. CEC of the piggery manure compost was hyperbolic function with rime and reached at 70cmol(+)/㎏ at the mature stage. Crude fiber analysis indicated that relative contents of lignin were increased with composting by compensating for the decreases of cellulose and hemicellulose contents.