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BACKGROUND: Nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (nHA/PA66) is a composite used widely in the repair of bone defects. However, this material is insufficient bioactivity. In contrast, D-RADA16-RGD self-assembling peptide (DRADA16- RGD sequence containing all D-amino acids is Ac-RADARADARADARADARGDS-CONH2) shows admirable bioactivity for both cell culture and bone regeneration. Here, we describe the fabrication of a favorable biomaterial material (nHA/PA66/D-RADA16-RGD). METHODS: Proteinase K and circular dichroism spectroscopy were employed to test the stability and secondary structural properties of peptide D-RADA16-RGD respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the surface of these materials. Confocal laser scanning (CLS), cell counting kit-8 tests (CCK-8), alizarin red S staining, cell immunofluorescence analysis and Western blotting were involved in vitro. Also biosafety and bioactivity of them have been evaluated in vivo. RESULTS: Proteinase K and circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated that D-RADA16-RGD in nHA/PA66 was able to form stable-sheet secondary structure. SEM and TEM showed that the D-RADA16-RGD material was 7–33 nm in width and 130–600 nm in length, and the interwoven pore size ranged from 40 to 200 nm. CLS suggests that cells in nHA/PA66/ D-RADA16-RGD group were linked to adjacent cells with more actin filaments. CCK-8 analysis showed that nHA/PA66/ D-RADA16-RGD revealed good biocompatibility. The results of Alizarin-red S staining and Western blotting as well as vivo osteogenesis suggest nHA/PA66/D-RADA16-RGD exhibits better bioactivity. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that our nHA/PA66/D-RADA16-RGD composite exhibits reasonable mechanical properties, biocompatibility and bioactivity with promotion of bone formation.
Many researchers have investigated the existence of day-of-the-week effects in different financial markets. However, they have usually adopted a parametric approach, which is known to have a few limitations. This paper adopts a non-parametric stochastic dominance (SD) approach to examine the day-of-the-week effects in Chinese stock markets. In contrast to the extensive evidence of day-of-the-week effects disclosed by a parametric mean-variance (MV) approach, our SD tests show that the day-of-the-week effect is much weaker. We find that there are only Wednesday effects in Chinese A-share and B-share stock markets.
Purpose: The aim of our study was to explore the relationships between the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) and the sensitivityof human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to docetaxel in vitro. Materials and Methods: With the method of plasmid transfection, we silenced the expression of PKM2 successfully in A549 and H460 cells. Western blotting and real-time PCR were applied to detect PKM2 expression at protein and gene levels. Cell viability was examined by CCK8 assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. P21 and Bax were detected. Results: Expression of PKM2 mRNA and protein were significantly decreased by shRNA targeting PKM2. Silencing of PKM2 increaseddocetaxel sensitivity of human NSCLC A549 and H460 cells in a collaborative manner, resulting in strong suppression of cell viability. The results of flow cytometric assays suggested that knockdown of PKM2 or docetaxel treatment, whether used singlyor in combination, blocked the cells in the G2/M phase, which is in consistent with the effect of the two on the expression of p21. Cells with PKM2 silencing were more likely to be induced into apoptosis by docetaxel although knockdown of PKM2 alone can't induce apoptosis significantly, which is in consistent with the effect of the two on Bax expression. Conclusion: The results suggest that PKM2 knockdown could serve as a chemosensitizer to docetaxel in non-small lung cancer cells through targeting PKM2, leading to inhibition of cell viability, increase of cell arrest of G2/M phase and apoptosis.
This study adopts the SWARCH model to examine the volatile behavior and volatility linkages among the four major segmented Chinese stock indices.We find strong evidence of a regime shift in the volatility of the four markets, and the SWARCH model appears to outperform standard generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) family models. The evidence suggests that, compared with the A-share markets, B-share markets stay in a high-volatility state longer and are more volatile and shift more frequently between high- and low-volatility states. In addition, the relative magnitude of the high-volatility compared with that of the low-volatility state in the B-share markets is much greater than the case in the two A-share markets. B-share markets are found to be more sensitive to international shocks, while A-share markets seem immune to international spillovers of volatility. Finally, analyses of the volatility spillover effect among the four stock markets indicate that the A-share markets play a dominant role in volatility in Chinese stock markets.
Qiao,,Yongli,Lee,,Song-I,Piao,,Rihua,Jiang,,Wenzhu,Ham,,Tae-Ho,Chin,,Joong-Hyoun,Piao,,Zhongze,Han,,Longzhi,Kang,,Si-Yong,Koh,,Hee-Jong Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology 2010 Molecules and cells Vol.29 No.2
In addition to its role as an energy source for plants, animals and humans, starch is also an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels. In rice, the eating and cooking quality of the grain is determined by its starch properties. The floury endosperm of rice has been explored as an agronomical trait in breeding and genetics studies. In the present study, we characterized a floury endosperm mutant, flo(a), derived from treatment of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica cultivar Hwacheong with MNU. The innermost endosperm of the flo(a) mutant exhibited floury characteristics while the outer layer of the endosperm appeared normal. Starch granules in the flo(a) mutant formed a loosely-packed crystalline structure and X-ray diffraction revealed that the overall crystallinity of the starch was decreased compared to wild-type. The FLO(a) gene was isolated via a map-based cloning approach and predicted to encode the tetratricopeptide repeat domaincontaining protein, OsTPR. Three mutant alleles contain a nucleotide substitution that generated one stop codon or one splice site, respectively, which presumably disrupts the interaction of the functionally conserved TPR motifs. Taken together, our map-based cloning approach pinpointed an OsTPR as a strong candidate of FLO(a), and the proteins that contain TPR motifs might play a significant role in rice starch biosynthetic pathways.
Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignancy with a poor prognosis. We aimed to explore whether the expression of Long Non-Coding RNA (LncRNA) growth arrest-specific transcript 5 (GAS5) is associated with RCC genesis. Methods: We selected twelve clinical samples diagnosed for renal clear cell carcinoma and found that the LncRNA GAS5 transcript levels were significantly reduced relative to those in adjacent unaffected normal renal tissues. Results: In addition, expression of GAS5 was lower in the RCC cell line A498 than that in normal renal cell line HK-2. Furthermore, using functional expression cloning, we found that overexpression of GAS5 in A498 cells inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and arrested cell cycling. At the same time, the migration and invasion potential of A498 cells were inhibited compared to control groups. Conclusion: Our study provided the first evidence that a decrease in GAS5 expression is associated with RCC genesis and progression and overexpression of GAS5 can act as a tumor suppressor for RCC, providing a potential attractive therapeutic approach for this malignancy.
This paper presents a set of techniques used in a real-time visual surveillance system. The system is implemented on a low-cost embedded DSP platform that is designed to work with stationary video sources. It consists of detection, a tracking and a classification module. The detector uses a statistical method to establish the background model and extract the foreground pixels. These pixels are grouped into blobs which are classified into single person, people in a group and other objects by the dynamic periodicity analysis. The tracking module uses mean shift algorithm to locate the target position. The system aims to control the human density in the surveilled scene and detect what happens abnormally. The major advantage of this system is the real-time capability and it only requires a video stream without other additional sensors. We evaluate the system in the real application, for example monitoring the subway entrance and the building hall, and the results prove the system's superior performance.
Chinese films have their own national style, which has been identified by theoretical circles. However, the questions of how the “national style” is formed and how the image system is built have not been widely given further examination. The image system of the early films in China is built gradually and driven by the concept of film-drama. This concept focuses on the idea that the film is a kind of drama, i.e., drama-based and film-supported. This forms the theoretical basis of the Chinese film image system. In the 1920s, the Chinese film image showed its original type of style, which was mainly represented through aspects including: scene as the basic unit; an open spatial concept; stylized stage design, etc.
A physiological disorder, called tipburn, commonly occurs in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), particularly in greenhouse cultivation and in hot seasons, and reduces its marketability. Calcium (Ca) deficiency is the main cause of tipburn injury. In the present study, we investigated the effect of exogenous spermidine (Spd) on the occurrence of tipburn in hydroponically cultivated head lettuce (var. capitata L.) and elucidated the role of Ca ions (Ca2+) in its prevention with respect to absorption and transport. Ca deficiency in the nutrient solution resulted in reduced uptake of Ca2+ in lettuce roots, thereby resulting in Ca deficiency in leaves, leading to leaf senescence and tipburn. An application of exogenous Spd promoted Ca2+ uptake in lettuce roots under Ca deficiency and promoted Ca2+ transportation to leaves, especially to inner leaves, thus delaying leaf senescence and reducing the incidence of tipburn. The results indicated that application of exogenous Spd is an effective method to decrease tipburn in lettuce caused by Ca deficiency.
Qiao,Yu,Ren,Mao,Lei,Lian,Siew,chien,Ng,Shenghong,Zhang,Zhihui,Chen,Yanyan,Zhang,Yun,Qiu,Baili,Chen,Yao,He,Zhirong,Zeng,Shomron,Ben-Horin,Xinming,Song,Minhu,Chen 대한장연구학회 2016 Intestinal Research Vol.14 No.4
Background/Aims: The past decades have seen increasing incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)in China. This article aimed to summarize the current status and characteristics of surgical management for IBD in China. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Chinese databases from January 1, 1990 to July 1, 2014 for all relevant studieson the surgical treatment IBD in China. Eligible studies with sufficient defined variables were further reviewed for primary andsecondary outcome measures. Results: A total of 74 studies comprising 2,007 subjects with Crohn's disease (CD) and 1,085subjects with ulcerative colitis (UC) were included. The percentage of CD patients misdiagnosed before surgery, including misdiagnosisas appendicitis or UC, was 50.8%±30.9% (578/1,268). The overall postoperative complication rate was 22.3%±13.0%(267/1,501). For studies of UC, the overall postoperative complication rate was 22.2%±27.9% (176/725). In large research centers(n>50 surgical cases), the rates of emergency operations for CD (P =0.032) and in-hospital mortalities resulting from bothCD and UC were much lower than those in smaller research centers (n≤50 surgical cases) (P =0.026 and P <0.001, respectively). Regarding the changes in CD and UC surgery over time, postoperative complications (P =0.045 for CD; P =0.020 for UC) andpostoperative in-hospital mortality (P =0.0002 for CD; P =0.0160 for UC) both significantly improved after the year 2010. Conclusions:The surgical management of IBD in China has improved over time. However, the rates of misdiagnosis and postoperativecomplications over the past two decades have remained high. Large research centers were found to have relatively bettercapacity for surgical management than the smaller ones. Higher quality prospective studies are needed in China.