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The purpose of this research was to investigate the motives of second-hand clothing consumers who both purchase from and donate to one retail outlet. Individuals' purchasing and donating motivations were examined using the hedonic/utilitarian framework. Eighteen participants who had donated to and purchased second-hand clothing from a charitable organization's thrift store were purposively selected and interviewed. Themes that emerged during data analysis were used to categorize the participants. The participants' responses suggested that hedonic and utilitarian motives drove both donation and purchase behavior. Academic and practical implications are presented.
This article aims to explain the alternative social policies governor's offices in Venezuela for the period 2004-2013 in the framework of the social missions of the National Government. From 1989 until 2003, the administrative policies governor's offices as units in the intermediate level of the state apparatus to advance the promotion of welfare, targeted and compensatory social policies in the context of a government with an alternative to the neoliberal project; however no progress on an alternative social policies in the national political project adept governor's offices. However, it is from 2004 after the oil economic boycott, when political conditions are created to advance a social policies alternative of inclusion and social justice in the adept governor's offices to alternative project that is promoted nationally with the creation of the social missions as universal national government policies. The research is based on a review of official documents five governors' offices : Lara ; Aragua ; Merida ; Carabobo and Zulia. We conclude that the national project adept, governor's offices achieve progress in an alternative social policies, social inclusion and justice hampered by entrenched technocratic and bureaucratic practices throughout the public system. Key Words: Alternative Social Policies, Social Missions, Social Inclusion, Social Justice, Governor's offices, Venezuela. El presente artículo tiene como propósito explicar la política social alternativa de las gobernaciones en Venezuela para el período 2004-2013 en el marco de las misiones sociales del Gobierno Nacional. Desde 1989 hasta el 2003, las gobernaciones como unidades políticas administrativas ubicadas en el nivel intermedio del aparato público avanzan en la promoción de una política social asistencialista, focalizada y compensatoria en el marco de un gobierno con un proyecto alternativo al neoliberal; no obstante hay avances en una política social alternativa en las gobernaciones adeptas al proyecto político nacional. Sin embargo es a partir del 2004 después del paro económico petrolero, cuando se crean las condiciones políticas para avanzar en una política social alternativa de inclusión y de justicia social en las gobernaciones adeptas al proyecto alternativo que se promueve a nivel nacional con la creación de las misiones sociales como política universal del gobierno nacional. La investigación se sustentó en una revisión de los documentos oficiales de cinco gobernaciones: Lara; Aragua; Mérida; Carabobo y Zulia. Se concluye que las gobernaciones adeptas al proyecto nacional, logran avances en una política social alternativa, de inclusión y de justicia social con obstáculos debido a prácticas tecnocráticas y burocráticas enquistadas en todo el aparato público. Palabras clave: Política Social Alternativa, Misiones Sociales, Inclusión Social, Justicia Social, Gobernaciones, Venezuela.
Professionals who work in the realm of tall building design and construction are well aware that high-rises are the best solution for accommodating growing urban populations. Until recently, few would have thought to include tall wood buildings as part of that solution, but there is growing awareness that tall mass timber structures can help satisfy the need for density while addressing the need-equally urgent-for a more sustainable built environment. This paper examines the trend toward tall wood buildings in the United States, including their history and international influences, market drivers, structural performance, and economic viability, as well as building code changes that allow wood structures up to 18 stories. It highlights examples of mass timber projects, with an emphasis on benefits that impact return on investment.
Introduction Training standards for long-haul truck drivers (LHTD) are rapidly evolving in Canada, yet the opinions of the drivers themselves have not been adequately considered. The purpose was to survey LHTD on their work training history and to examine LHTD perceptions of driver training and licensing protocols. Methods LHTD were recruited across two Western Canadian provinces from seven different truck stops. The sample completed 207 surveys and 67 semi-structured interviews. Results The average age of the participants was 52.5 ± 11.5 years (range 24–79); 96% were men. Approximately 33% of the LHTD had at least one crash. Those who did not receive formal driver training were significantly more likely to crash than those who had received training. Participants stated that current training standards are inadequate for the industry, particularly for new drivers. According to participants, entry-level curriculums should consist of both classroom and practical training, as well as on-road observation with a senior mentor. LHTD reported that many new drivers are not equipped to drive in various contexts and settings (e.g., mountains, slippery roads). Conclusions LHTD are not confident in the current training guidelines for novice truck drivers. Revisions to the training curriculum and standardization across Canada should be considered. Practical Application A federal mandatory entry-level training program is needed in Canada to ensure that all new LHTD ascertain the necessary skills to drive safely. Such a program requires government involvement and input from LHTD to facilitate appropriate licensure and consistent training for all drivers. Introduction Training standards for long-haul truck drivers (LHTD) are rapidly evolving in Canada, yet the opinions of the drivers themselves have not been adequately considered. The purpose was to survey LHTD on their work training history and to examine LHTD perceptions of driver training and licensing protocols. Methods LHTD were recruited across two Western Canadian provinces from seven different truck stops. The sample completed 207 surveys and 67 semi-structured interviews. Results The average age of the participants was 52.5 ± 11.5 years (range 24–79); 96% were men. Approximately 33% of the LHTD had at least one crash. Those who did not receive formal driver training were significantly more likely to crash than those who had received training. Participants stated that current training standards are inadequate for the industry, particularly for new drivers. According to participants, entry-level curriculums should consist of both classroom and practical training, as well as on-road observation with a senior mentor. LHTD reported that many new drivers are not equipped to drive in various contexts and settings (e.g., mountains, slippery roads). Conclusions LHTD are not confident in the current training guidelines for novice truck drivers. Revisions to the training curriculum and standardization across Canada should be considered. Practical Application A federal mandatory entry-level training program is needed in Canada to ensure that all new LHTD ascertain the necessary skills to drive safely. Such a program requires government involvement and input from LHTD to facilitate appropriate licensure and consistent training for all drivers.
PURPOSE. This study aims to investigate the effects of four different lateral occlusion schemes and different excursions on peri-implant strains of a maxillary canine implant. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Four metal crowns with different occlusion schemes were attached to an implant in the maxillary canine region of a resin model. The included schemes were canine-guided (CG) occlusion, group function (GF) occlusion, long centric (LC) occlusion, and implant-protected (IP) occlusion. Each crown was loaded in three sites that correspond to maximal intercuspation (MI), 1 mm excursion, and 2 mm excursion. A load of 140 N was applied on each site and was repeated 10 times. The peri-implant strain was recorded by a rosette strain gauge that was attached on the resin model buccal to the implant. For each loading condition, the maximum shear strain value was calculated. RESULTS. The different schemes and excursive positions had impact on the peri-implant strains. At MI and 1 mm positions, the GF had the least strains, followed by IP, CG, and LC. At 2 mm, the least strains were associated with GF, followed by CG, LC, and IP. However, regardless of the occlusion scheme, as the excursion increases, a linear increase of peri-implant strains was detected. CONCLUSION. The peri-implant strain is susceptible to occlusal factors. The eccentric location appears to be more influential on peri-implant strains than the occlusion scheme. Therefore, adopting an occlusion scheme that can reduce the occurrence of occlusal contacts laterally may be beneficial in reducing peri-implant strains.
<P>This study was conducted to generate and validate a cross-culturally adapted Korean version of the xerostomia inventory (XI), an 11-item questionnaire designed to measure the severity of xerostomia. The original English version of the XI was translated into Korean according to the guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality-of-life measures. Among a prospective cohort of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) in Korea, 194 patients were analyzed. Internal consistency was evaluated by using Cronbach's alpha, and test-retest reliability was obtained by using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis. Construct validity was investigated by performing a correlation analysis between XI total score and salivary flow rate (SFR). Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency was 0.868, and the ICC for test-retest reliability ranged from 0.48 to 0.827, with a median value of 0.72. Moderate negative correlations between XI score and stimulated SFR, unstimulated SFR, and differential (stimulated minus unstimulated) SFR were observed (Spearman's rho, <I>ρ</I> = −0.515, −0.447, and −0.482, respectively; <I>P</I> < 0.001). The correlation analysis between the visual analogue scale (VAS) score of overall dryness and SFR indicated a smaller <I>ρ</I> value (−0.235 [<I>P</I> = 0.006], −0.243 [<I>P</I> = 0.002], and −0.252 [<I>P</I> = 0.003], respectively), which supports that XI more accurately reflects the degree of xerostomia in the pSS patients. In conclusion, the Korean version of the XI is a reliable tool to estimate the severity of xerostomia in patients with pSS.</P>
Lee,,Jennifer,Lee,,Ji-Yeon,Lee,,Jae-Ho,Jung,,Seung-Min,Suh,,Young,Sun,Koh,,Jung-Hee,Kwok,,Seung-Ki,Ju,,Ji,Hyeon,Park,,Kyung-Su,Park,,Sung-Hwan BioMed Central 2015 ARTHRITIS RESEARCH AND THERAPY Vol.17 No.-
<P><B>Introduction</B></P><P>Gout is a chronic inflammatory disease the development of which is associated with obesity-induced metabolic abnormalities. However, a substantial number of non-obese patients (body mass index [BMI] <25 kg/m<SUP>2</SUP>) also develop gout in Korea. It was suggested that accumulation of visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat is associated with metabolic abnormalities and hyperuricemia in patients with gout; therefore, we hypothesized that visceral fat accumulation was increased in non-obese gout patients.</P><P><B>Methods</B></P><P>One hundred and three male patients with primary gout and 204 age-matched healthy controls who attended a health check-up examination were recruited after the review of medical charts. The visceral fat area (VFA) was measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method, and a VFA >100 cm<SUP>2</SUP> was defined as visceral fat obesity (VFO). The frequency of VFO was compared in patients and control groups. The frequencies of metabolic syndrome and related parameters were also investigated.</P><P><B>Results</B></P><P>BMI, waist circumference, total fat mass, serum triglycerides, and serum glucose levels were significantly greater in patients compared with controls. VFA and the prevalence of VFO was increased in gout patients compared with controls. There were positive correlations between VFA and serum triglyceride levels and serum glucose levels. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that VFO is an independent risk factor for gout (odds ratio 2.488, 95% confidence interval 1.041–4.435). In non-obese subgroup analyses (gout patients, <I>n</I> = 38; healthy controls, <I>n</I> = 150), VFA (98.7 ± 19.3 vs. 91.0 ± 16.7, <I>P</I> = 0.016) and the frequency of VFO (47.4 vs. 27.3%, <I>P</I> = 0.017) remained significantly higher in gout patients. There was no difference in either BMI or total fat mass between patients and controls in the non-obese subgroup. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with gout was 31.7% (33/104), compared with 13.2% (5/38) in the non-obese subgroup according to modified ATP III criteria.</P><P><B>Conclusion</B></P><P>VFO, measured using BIA, is observed more frequently in patients with primary gout compared with healthy controls, even in non-obese individuals. Therefore, VFO might more properly represent metabolic derangements in patients with gout than general obesity.</P>
'Loving Objects' explores the formation of a newly named sexual rientation, objectum-sexuality (OS), claimed by people who openly eclare their desire for objects, not as fetishes, but as amorous partners. he article examines popular media depictions of OS which take a unspicious view of OS, arguing that these are symptomatic of worries bout what constitutes proper objects of love in the context of proliferating iscourses about emotional and territorial security. Comparing OS to ommercial consumption of objects as well as to scientists? enchantments ith their objects of study, the article draws on feminist technoscience tudies to argue that OS is not as strange as it would, on first contact, appear.
In this retrospective review study, the authors systematically reviewed the literature to elucidate the efficacy and complications associated with decompression and interspinous devices (ISDs) used in surgeries for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). LSS is a debilitating condition that affects the lumbar spinal cord and spinal nerve roots. However, a comprehensive report on the relative efficacy and complication rate of ISDs as they compare to traditional decompression procedures is currently lacking. The PubMed database was queried to identify clinical studies that exclusively investigated decompression, those that exclusively investigated ISDs, and those that compared decompression with ISDs. Only prospective cohort studies, case series, and randomized controlled trials that evaluated outcomes using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index, or Japanese Orthopedic Association scores were included. A random-effects model was established to assess the difference between preoperative and the 1–2-year postoperative VAS scores between ISD surgery and lumbar decompression. This study included 40 papers that matched our criteria. Twenty-five decompression-exclusive clinical trials with 3,386 patients and a mean age of 68.7 years (range, 31–88 years) reported a 2.2% incidence rate of dural tears and a 2.6% incidence rate of postoperative infections. Eight ISD-exclusive clinical trials with 1,496 patients and a mean age of 65.1 (range, 19–89 years) reported a 5.3% incidence rate of postoperative leg pain and a 3.7% incidence rate of spinous process fractures. Seven studies that compared ISDs and decompression in 624 patients found a reoperation rate of 8.3% in ISD patients vs. 3.9% in decompression patients; they also reported dural tears in 0.32% of ISD patients vs. 5.2% in decompression patients. A meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials found that the differences in preoperative and postoperative VAS scores between the two groups were not significant. Both decompression and ISD interventions are unique surgical interventions with different therapeutic efficacies and complications. The collected studies do not consistently demonstrate superiority of either procedure over the other but understanding the differences between the two techniques can help tailor treatment regimens for patients with LSS.