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Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) caused cracking of Galvanized transformation induced plasticity steels was investigatedduring resistance spot welding (RSW). Effect of electrode force (3–5 kN) for a weld time of 400, and 800 ms on crack resistanceof TRIP steel was examined in relation to LME phenomenon. The microstructural characteristics of spot weld jointsand LME cracking tendency were investigated using dye penetration tests, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopytogether with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was found that as the electrode force increases, the crack size decreasesdue to a fast increase in crack tip temperature which rises further with more holding time up to 800 ms in high temperaturezone. Least amount of crack size was observed at 5 kN electrode force and 400 ms of welding time. Finally, the experimentalresults have also been simulated by finite element modeling (FEM) to find suitable mechanism of crack formation, and acombination of 4 kN and 400 ms was suggested for the crack free and less thermal deformation in the spot welded TRIP steel.
Twenty-seven selected equations were tested on 162 compounds with 1958 calorimetric data for their abilities to reflect the temperature influence on the heat of vaporization of pure compounds. A new equation is recommended (overall percent deviation 0.27% and percent deviation 0.59% above 0.9Tr). Twenty-seven selected equations were tested on 162 compounds with 1958 calorimetric data for their abilities to reflect the temperature influence on the heat of vaporization of pure compounds. A new equation is recommended (overall percent deviation 0.27% and percent deviation 0.59% above 0.9Tr).
The purpose if this study was to evaluate temperature change occurred in enamel, dentin and pulp due to the heat from cavity prepration with laser. We made three models had different cavity depth : cavity depth of model Awas 3.52mm, model B was 2.32mm, model C was 1.16mm. We irradiated cavity base with thermal capacity of 30J,100J,300J/㎤s during few seconds and studied the change of temperature in tooth during 10 seconds, and estimated change of thermal capacity by different irradiated site and exposure time. AT 300j/㎤s irradiation for 2 seconds, the temperature of irradiated surface was elevated fast according to irradiated thermal energy during I second, In proportion to continuous exposure time, temperature elevated slowly The surface temperature was 1370℃. After discontinue of thermal irradiation, the heat of irradiated surface was diffused in dentin and pulp and the greatest temperature was made, The greatest temperature was disappeared within 10 seconds The greatest temperature of the inner part of model brought about very severe change by different depth. Temperature in pulp was raised by the greater irradiated energy density and exposure time.
Kim, Du-Gyu. 1998. B. Brecht's View of Language. Linguistics, 6-2, 371-385. The current interpretation of Brecht's drama 『Mr. Puntila and His Slave Matti』 was often based on the tradition of Marxism, which has led to a unilateral interpretation Brecht was a Marxist. Therefore his works, including the above-mentioned drama, must be interpreted from the standpoint of the struggle of the classes. If we are to fully understand the true meaning of his works, we must place focus on Brecht's method of language use, which has been nearly ignored. This paper purposes to trace out the delicate phrase and method of language use employed in the drama 『Mr. Puntila and His Slave Mattia』 which is frequently noticed in the use of satire, parody, and comic expression. (Woosuk University)
Kim, Du-Gyu. 1999. Acceptance and Transformation of Speech Act Theory in Germany. Linguistics 7-2, 289-302. Speech act theory was essentially discussed by linguistic philosophers such as J. L. Austin and J. R. Searle, who were subject to the influence of L. Wittgenstein. Therefore speech act theory has been .principally the subject of the linguistic philosophers. As the speech act theory was introduced in Germany since the late 1970's, it was accepted and transformed by some linguists such as F. Hundsnurscher, G. Hindelang and W. Franke. This paper explores the transformed forms of the orthodox speech act theory, namely 'the extended speech act theory' and 'the dialogical grammar'. (Woosuk University)
This paper deals with a source market size estimation tool that is based on a combination of geomarketing information and consumer spending datasets. We have decided to apply a proposed estimation method on three consumption expenditure groups that are related to the tourism and hospitality industry in the Czech Republic. The geographic and consumer spending data sets for the period 2011 - 2016 were drawn from publicly available sources. With the use of GIS software, this method allowed us to estimate and graphically display consumer spending on recreation and culture; restaurants and hotels; and transport in 2016 at the level of Czech districts, as well as the average annual growth rate during the period 2011 – 2016. This paper describes the Czech tourism and hospitality market from its size and growth point of view. It shows the trends in expenditures for hospitality and tourism services, explain the purchasing power in Czech regions and districts and predict the development for next few years. The results obtained by this low-cost method can be easily used by enterprises from the Czech Republic within domestic tourism, as well as by the foreign companies wanting to attract Czech visitors.
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Purpose: The aim of this paper is to create a generic competency model based on the entry-level positions’ requirements of human resource managers in trading companies operating in the Czech Republic. The proposed model should define an optimal set of key competencies that a competent graduate of business degree should have to be successful in specific selection processes for different graduate jobs in trading companies and thus be successful in performing job duties. Design/methodology/approach: The research question for this study was which key competencies business graduates need the most for entry-level positions in the field of trading and which ideal behavior is expected for such competencies. Within the questionnaire survey, the degree of significance of the defined key competencies was subsequently determined. The target population consisted of trading companies with 25 - 249 employees based and operating in the Czech Republic that are willing to hire fresh graduates for entry-level positions. The quantitative data was finally obtained from 419 companies. On the basis of the data analysis results, a generic competency model of a university graduate of business degree was created. Findings: The generic model developed on the basis of the data from trading companies consists of two parts. It defines an optimal set of 6 key competencies as well as the expected behavior that a competent business graduate should have to succeed in specific selection processes for various positions in trading companies that require university education, and subsequently, to be successful in performing jobs in the trade sector. Research limitations/implications: The research limitations are caused mainly by two factors: the company size and products that the trading company is (re)selling. Although specific key competencies can be rated as very important by two different recruiters in the questionnaire, requirements, and expectations of a small company operating in an extremely competitive environment may be significantly higher than in the case of company with large staff and an extensive customer base, or vice versa. Originality/value: The resulting competency model can make the selection process more transparent for both recruiters and job candidates because of established standards concerning desirable key competencies for such positions in trading companies. At the same time, this tool can be an acceleration and suitable starting point for more extensive implementation of the modern competency-based approach for economics and business degrees at universities.
Kim, Du-Gyu. 2000. A Comparative Study of Korean and German According to the Semantic Field Theory. Linguistics 8-1, 191-206. The purpose of this paper is to compare some words in Korean and German, based on the semantic field, in order to show the differences of two languages and their reasons. The objects of comparison in semantic field are as follows: `go', 'die', 'come', 'words of family relation', 'academic grade' and 'words of mutual designations'. For example, the semantic field go' in German is composed of three divisions, whereas the semantic field go' in Korean is composed of only one section. This paper deals with the reason of this difference.(Woosuk University)
Although the amount of IgA in serum is small compared with the amount of IgG, IgA is redominant in secretory fluids such as colostrum, saliva, nasal fluid and tears. IgA from the colostrum and saliva has a higher sedimentation constant (11S) than serum IgA(7S), and 11S colostral IgA has additional antigenic determinants with specificities which are not present in serum IgA. In addition to the heavy and light chains present in the molecule of serum IgA, colostral IgA has another protein component-the transport piece or the secretory piece. Immune globulin in colostrum accounts for the immunity to certain infections acquired by newborn mammals after suckling. After hydrolysis in the gut, proteins in the form of aminoacids are thought to be absorbed, but there is -no experimental evidence for this. We have therefore studied the problems as follows. Colostrum was collected after delivery from primiparous women, and colostraI IgA was purified by gel filtration with Sephadex G-200 and DEAE-cellulose chromatography according to the method of Cebra and Robins. Antitryptic activity was measured in two ways. First, the inhibitory capacity of whole colostrum against trypsin was performed as described by Faarvang using urea-denatured bovine hemoglobin solution as substarate. Fifty microliters of a 0.2 per cent solution of crude trypsin was warmed at 25 for 20 minutes in a water bath. One hundred and fifty microliters of fresh whole colpstrum, prewarmed to 25 or 150 microliters of human serum was added to the above prewarmed enzyme solution. Two minutes later 0.5 ㎖ of 22 per cent urea-denatured bovine hemoglobin solution and 100 microliters of 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 8.0, were added, and the mixture was incubated for 20 minutxs at 25° The undigested protein was then precipitated by 2.5 ㎖ of 0. 3 M trichloroacetic acid. After the mixture had been centrifuged or filtered, 50 microliters of the supernatant was used for the Folin-Ciocalteu reaction. Trichloroacetic acid was added to the blank before addition of the hemoglobin solution, and the absorbance was read at 700 mmicrons with a Beckman DU-2 spectrophotometer. The second method which we followed was as described by Kueppers and Bearn. One part pf 0. 1 per cent bovine fibrinogen in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 8.0, ,was mixed with ten parts of 2 per cent hot agar (80-90°in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 8. 0. On mixing the fibrinogen with hot agar the mixture immediately turned cloudy and it was poured onto a glass slide which was kept in a moist chamber for one hour. A longitudinal strip of agar, 3 mm wide, was then cut out to make a trough, and near the trough two wells, 0.4 mm ;in diameter, were punched out of the agar. The trough was filled with 0.2 per cent crLde trypsin solution in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 8. 0. One hundred microliters of fresh human colostrum or isolated colostral IgA or fresh human serum were introduced side by side into the wells and the slide was left overnight at 40 in a moist chamber. After washing the slide with 0.15 M NaCl to remove the digested fibrinogen peptides, it was stained with amidoblack 10B. Using hemoglobin as substrate, colostrum-unlike serum-did not show antitryptic activity. When, however, either colostrum or colostral IgA was tested using the fibrinogen-agar-gel slide technic, it showed antitryptic activity similar to that shown by serum. The discrepancy between the two results can be explained as follows. Serum antitrypsin acts. directly on the trypsin molecule, thus protecting every kind of protein molecule from tryptic digestion. Colostral IgA on the other hand has only self-protecting activity against trypsin. Thus when hemoglobin was used as substrate there was no antitrypticactivity, whereas in the fibrinogen-agar-gel slide technic antitryptic activity was evident because colostral IgA which cannot be digested by trypsin diffused through the fibrinogen-agar medium. From the theoretical point of view also, colostral antibody should not interfere with the digestion of other nutritionally important proteins in the milk and. it should have only self-protective action for absorption or for its biologic activity in the gut. The presence of antitrypsin in colostrum was thought to aid passive alimentary immunity by delaying they hydrolysis of antibody. Chamberlain and others, however, failed to show the absorption of gamma globulin intact in piglets after experimental addition of antitxypsin. It may be then that passive immunity is aided only by the antitryptic activity of specific, intrinsic colostral IgA. At the present time we do not know whether the whole intact IgA molecule or only that part which retains the antibody activity is protected from tryptic digestion. Serum IgA and. colostral IgA differ in the presence of the so-called transport piece in the calostral IgA molecule. We have demonstrated the presence of the additional protein component in the colostral IgA. by gel filtration of reduced and alkylated colostral IgA, so it seems reasonable to assume that one possible function of the transport piece is to protect the molecule or the part of the molecule which has the antibody activity from proteolytic enzymes in the gut. Direct demonstration of the antitryptic activity of the transport piece is now under progress.