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The advent of Internet of Things (IoT) and the evident inadequacy of Cloud networks concerning management of numerous end nodes have brought about a shift of paradigm giving birth to Fog computing. Fog computing is an extension of Cloud computing that extends Cloud resources at the edge of the network, closer to the user. Cloud computing has become one of the essential needs of people over the Internet but with the emerging concept of IoT, traditional Clouds seem inadequate. IoT entails extremely low latency and for that, the Cloud servers that are distant and unknown to the user appear to be unsuitable. With the help of Fog computing, the Fog devices installed would be closer to the user that will provide an immediate storage for the frequently needed data. This paper discusses data migration between different storage types especially between Cloud devices and then presents a mechanism to migrate data between Cloud and Fog Layer. We call this mechanism Adaptive Deadline-Aware Scheme (ADAS) for Data migration between Cloud and Fog. We will demonstrate that we can access and process latency sensitive “hot” data through the proposed ADAS more efficiently than with a traditional Cloud setup.
Lilies are of great economic important floweringplant that belongs to the genus Lilium can be grown underdiverse climatic conditions. During the last decade the lilyhas gained popularity worldwide among cut flowers and pot-ted flowering plants. Seeing the great recognition of lilies ininternational flower trade, several breeding approacheshave been adopted on different Lilium sections/groups andmore than 10,000 lily cultivars have been bred. Innovativebreeding strategies and advancement in molecular and bio-technology techniques have made the assortment of liliesdramatically. Different DNA marker approaches have greatpotential to increase the precision and efficiency of conven-tional lily breeding via marker-assisted selection (MAS) anddifferent breeders used it for Lilium crop improvement. Inthis review, different approaches and techniques that lilybreeders have employed to develop novel cultivars are dis-cussed. It is imperative to recognize that there must be anenhanced integration and synchronization in different lilyobjective oriented breeding programs, so that current issues,barriers etc. can be well identified with their appropriatesolutions.
Potting media are an integral part of potted plants production system, formulated by a mixture of various raw materials to act as a substrate for plant support and source of nutrition. There is a wide range of potting media available, which are used for quality production of high-value plants worldwide. In this study, quality assessment of Dracaena plants grown in different potting media like: mushroom compost, peat, sand, farmyard manure, coconut coir, and leaf compost in different combinations were carried out. A mixture of sand, mushroom compost, coconut coir, and peat proved to be the best, by promoting root and shoot growth, leaf area, fresh and dry weights of root and shoot, and also improved overall quality of the plant. Media containing garden soil alone or a mixture of sand and leaf compost produced the lowest quality of plants with considerable reduction in most of the growth parameters. Anatomical parameters showed weak relation to media composition as compared to other morphological features. The best medium was made with sand, mushroom compost, coconut coir, peat, that produced plants with thick epidermis and larger pith cells, but thin endodermis and smaller metaxylem vessels in their roots. As moisture availability was sufficient enough in this medium combination, the development of water storing tissue may not contribute significantly. However, epidermis can play a decisive role in protecting roots from external environmental hazards.
Rainfall variability associated with the South Asian Summer Monsoon has increased in recent decades, particularly at the northwestern monsoon margins over Pakistan, leading to more frequent and intense hydro-meteorological extremes that have adversely affected the agrarian economy, water and food security in the country. Devising effective strategies to ensure sustainable development in Pakistan thus requires that the monsoonal rainfall be predicted on an inter-annual scale. Here, we predicted the inter- and intra-annual variability of the monsoonal rainfall over Pakistan and its possible drivers using a linear statistical forecast model of the principal component (PC) regression analysis. For this purpose, highly correlated PCs of the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) based sea level pressure, horizontal and meridional winds to the observed rainfall for the period 2001–2013 were ingested in a stepwise multiple regression model, which was further validated for the duration of 2014–2015. Our results suggest that featuring correlation coefficient, mean absolute error, mean bias, and root mean square error of 0.75, 42.23, −14.92 and 60.65, respectively, the model exhibits robust skill in predicting the inter-annual monsoonal rainfall variability at its extreme northwestern margins over Pakistan.
ObjectiveThromogenic gene mutations has been thought to be associated with recurrent pregnancy loss in women in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thromogenic gene mutations such as factor V Leiden (FVL, G1691T), prothrombin (G20210A), and the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, C677T) mutation in women with recurrent pregnancy loss. MethodsThis descriptive study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Harran University School of Medicine, and included a total of 1,507 women with histories of recurrent pregnancy loss between January 2010 and June 2013. The mutations were assessed by using the polymerase chain reaction. ResultsThe homozygous mutation frequencies of FVL, prothrombin, and MTHFR were found to be 3 (0.20%), 0 and 125 (8.29%), and the heterozygous mutation frequencies were 83 (5.51%), 61 (4.05%), and 612 (40.61%), respectively. Among the 86 FVL mutation patients, 38 also had accompanying prothrombin and MTHFR mutations. ConclusionSince the homozygous forms of the FVL-prothrombin gene mutations have low incidences and MTHFR mutation is similar to a healthy population, preconceptional thromogenic gene mutations screening seems to be controversial.
Purpose: Insulin gene (INS) mutations are a rare cause of permanent neonatal diabetes and mature-onset diabetes of the young (MODY10). Homozygous mutations have been reported to cause diabetes by decreasing insulin biosynthesis through distinct mechanisms. In this study, we report a homozygous mutation c.-331C>G in the INS gene causing autosomal recessive neonatal diabetes in Saudi families and share our experience with diagnosis and management. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all cases diagnosed with diabetes during the first week of life. We identified 18 cases, and all underwent genetic testing to identify the cause. Most had mutations in common genes (9 in KCNJ11 and 5 in ABCC8). The inclusion criterion for this study was a mutation in the INS gene. Results: Four patients from 3 Saudi families had mutations in the INS gene. All patients were born with low birth weight and were diagnosed with neonatal diabetes at the age of 2 days. Sanger sequencing analysis identified a homozygous INS pathogenic promoter variant, c.-331C>G. All patients were managed by insulin therapy. Two patients had persistent diabetes and in 2 cases diabetes resolved. Conclusion: This report indicates that a homozygous mutation in the INS gene is a probable and important cause of neonatal diabetes in Saudi Arabia. The c.-331C>G variant in the INS gene identified in our study showed variability both within and between families and different outcomes ranging from early resolution of diabetes after 2 months of life to permanent diabetes.
A new conductive material, copper/Super-P carbon black composite (Cu-SPB), is prepared viaan efficient ion reducing method for use in low-temperature lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Thepresent study investigated the effects of copper content on the low-temperature performance ofLIBs. Electrodes prepared with a high-copper-content conductive material (Cu = 18.54%) showedremarkably improved performance in terms of capacity retention (around 40%), cycling stability, andcolumbic efficiency. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis revealed that thepresence of higher Cu contents could reduce the cell's impedance. The results were also confirmedby using a coin-type full cell's improved capacity retention, which indicated the significance of Cuparticles in enhancing the low-temperature performance of LIBs.
This article presents a design of a novel moving magnet linear actuator (MMLA) for linear refrigerator compressor. A methodology to estimate the magnetic flux density as well as the magnetic force of MMLA is presented. Considering the simulation time of a 3D FEM software, a combination of 2D FEM with the analytical models makes this technique convenient and expeditious. Using the 2D FEM, the magnetic flux path is segregated into several loops which are divided into finite reluctance zones. The reluctance models for each zone incorporates the effect of armature position to predict the magnetic flux density and linear force incorporating the stator saturation. A 3D FEM simulation is executed to compare the presented models as well as computation times. Furthermore, an analytical approach for evaluating the effect of the excitation frequency and motor constant on the dynamic performance of a linear oscillating actuator is presented and validated experimentally.