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Most Authors reported that mouth guard is a part of equipment for body-contact sports players. Mouth guards protect orofacial injuries but have some problems in breathing and speaking. Some authors reported that mouth guards have also improve the muscle strength and sport ability. This experiment was performed to study the change of masseter muscle EMG after wearing of mouth guard. 10 D university male base ball players were participated in this study. After impression taking, mouth guards were constructed and weared. Masseter muscle EMG and nasal ventilation after ten day's adaptation were checked. They were requested clenching with or without mouth guard. EMG and nasal ventilation were checked by iworx 104 instrument simultaneousley. The result showed that masseteric EMG were improved and nasal ventilation were stable after wearing mouth guard. It concluded that mouth guard had improved muscle activity and stabilized the nasal ventilation depend on experimental method.
This experiment was performed to elucidate the effect of adrenergics and adrenergic receptor blockers on the membrane potential of the rat submaxillary gland. Rats of both sexes were anesthesized by intraperitoneal injection of urethan (0.5ml/100gm weight). The segments of submaxillary gland were isolated and placed in a Perspex tissue bath (10ml) perfused with 37℃ Krebs-Henseleit solution, aerated with 95% O_2 - 5% co_2 mixture, flowed at about 10ml/min. Membrane potential were measured with glass microelectrode filled with 3M KCI and 10mM potassium citrate, having a tip resistance of 10∼20MΩ. The microelectrode was connected to preamplifier and the membrane potential was recorded on a pen recorder. 100μM epinephrine and phenylephrine were infused into the tissue bath with a constant infusion pump, respectively and 100μM and 1 mM prazosin, yohimbine and propranolol were also infused in the same method for 30 seconds. The results were as follows: 1. The mean resting potential of rat submaxillary gland cells during perfused with krebs-Henseleit solution was similar with the resting potential which was measured in vivo. 2. Adrenergic drugs evoked hyperpolarization on the rat submaxillary gland cells. 3. 100μM adrenergic receptor blockers were prolonged the effect of adrenergics which were appeared as hyperpolarization, but 1mM prazosin prevented the hyperpolarization which was evoked by epinephrine and 1mM yohimbine also prevented the hyperpolarization which was evoked by phenylephrine.
This experiment was performed to elucidate the effect of adrenergics and adrenergic receptor blockers on the release of K^+ ion from rat submaxillary gland. Rats of both sexes were anesthesized by intraperitoneal injection of 25% Urethan (0.5㎖/100gm weight). The segment of submaxillary gland were isolated and slices were prepared by placing the and in a parafilm sheet and cutting with a sharp scalpel blade into pieces of approximately 1㎣. The cut slices were immediately places in perspex bath containing 2.5㎖ of K.H.S. each slice system was washed once with 2.5㎖ of fresh K.H.S and finally placed in 2.5㎖ of K.H.S. for final incubation. The entire procedure was carried out in oxygenated medium kept at 37℃. Incubation times were usually 10 minutes but were prolonged to 30 minutes in some systems. The K^+ concentration in K.H.S by adrenergics and adrenergic blockers were determined with flame photometer using a lithium internal standard. The results were as follows. 1. Stimulating the adrenergic receptor occurs the release of K^+ on the submaxillary gland in Vitro. 2. Stimulating the βadrenergic receptor by isoprogrenol did not occur the release of K^+ and propranolol which was specific βadrenergic blocker did not convert the effect of K^+ release by epinerhrine. 3. K^+ efflux from submaxillary gland was blocked by prazosin which was specific α, adrenergic receptor blocker and yohimbine which was specific α_2 adrenergic blocker, and prazosin was more potent than yohimbine.