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      • KCI등재

        민주주의에서 표의 불평등성: 국회의원 선거구획정의 왜곡도 분석

        이상학,이성규 한국의정연구회 2015 의정논총 Vol.10 No.2

        본 논문은 현행 국회의원 선거구획정 기준인 선거구 ‘인구수’를 기준으로 선거구획정의 왜곡도를 정치적 지니계수와 획정지수의 분산계수를 이용하여 측정하고자 한다. 측정 결과 인구기준으로 측정한 정치적 지니계수는 유권자기준 정치적 지니계수보다 더 큰 값을 가지는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 인구수를 기준으로 측정한 획정지수의 분산계수도 유권자수를 기준으로 한 분산계수보다 더 큰 값을 갖는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 한국의 국회의원 선거구획정이 이상학(2011)과 Lee·Lee(2013)의 측정 결과보다 더 왜곡되어 있음을 나타낸다. 또한 본 논문은 이와 같은 선거구획정의 왜곡이 잠재적으로 인구의 ‘세대별 대표성’에 왜곡을 초래할 가능성에 대해서도 분석하였다. 분석 결과 유아‧청소년층 및 청‧장년층은 전반적으로 과소 대표되고, 노년층은 ‘과다’ 대표되고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 앞으로 지속적으로 늘어날 복지지출 등을 둘러싸고 세대 간 잠재적 갈등이 표출될 가능성을 시사하는 것으로 해석할 수 있다. 마지막으로, 본 논문은 향후 선거구획정의 평가와 관련하여 정치적 지니계수와 획정지수의 분산계수 등과 같은 객관적 기준을 활용할 것을 제안한다. This paper attempts to examine the mal-apportionment in National Assembly election in Korea by extending Lee, Sanghack(2011) and Lee‧Lee(2013). To measure the extent of mal-apportionment, we used both the coefficient of variation of the apportionment index and the political Gini coefficient that are calculated based on population rather than the number of electorate. It turns out that the extent of mal-apportionment based on population is greater than that calculated by the number of voters. In addition, the present paper examines the distortion in representation of age groups resulting from such mal-apportionment. It is shown that the mal-apportionment leads to under- representation of younger generations, but over-representation of old generation. This result implies that there will be potential conflict of interests between age groups in terms of welfare expenditures which are supposed to be increase in Korea. Finally, we suggests that the electoral apportionment be evaluated based on measurable indexes, such as political Gini coefficient and the coefficient of variation of the apportionment index, for more practical debate and consensus.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재

        민주주의에서 표의 불평등성 : 국회의원 선거구획정의 왜곡도 분석

        李相學,李城圭 한국의정연구회 2015 의정논총 Vol.10 No.2

        본 논문은 현행 국회의원 선거구획정 기준인 선거구 ‘인구수’를 기준으로 선거구획정의 왜곡도를 정치적 지니계수와 획정지수의 분산계수를 이용하여 측정하고자 한다. 측정 결과 인구기준으로 측정한 정치적 지니계수는 유권자기준 정치적 지니계수보다 더 큰 값을 가지는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 인구수를 기준으로 측정한 획정지수의 분산계수도 유권자수를 기준으로 한 분산계수보다 더 큰 값을 갖는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 한국의 국회의원 선거구획정이 이상학(2011)과 Lee·Lee(2013)의 측정 결과보다 더 왜곡되어 있음을 나타낸다. 또한 본 논문은 이와 같은 선거구획정의 왜곡이 잠재적으로 인구의 ‘세대별 대표성’에 왜곡을 초래할 가능성에 대해서도 분석하였다. 분석 결과 유아‧청소년층 및 청‧장년층은 전반적으로 과소 대표되고, 노년층은 ‘과다’ 대표되고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 앞으로 지속적으로 늘어날 복지지출 등을 둘러싸고 세대 간 잠재적 갈등이 표출될 가능성을 시사하는 것으로 해석할 수 있다. 마지막으로, 본 논문은 향후 선거구획정의 평가와 관련하여 정치적 지니계수와 획정지수의 분산계수 등과 같은 객관적 기준을 활용할 것을 제안한다. This paper attempts to examine the mal-apportionment in National Assembly election in Korea by extending Lee, Sanghack(2011) and Lee‧Lee(2013). To measure the extent of mal-apportionment, we used both the coefficient of variation of the apportionment index and the political Gini coefficient that are calculated based on population rather than the number of electorate. It turns out that the extent of mal-apportionment based on population is greater than that calculated by the number of voters. In addition, the present paper examines the distortion in representation of age groups resulting from such mal-apportionment. It is shown that the mal-apportionment leads to under- representation of younger generations, but over-representation of old generation. This result implies that there will be potential conflict of interests between age groups in terms of welfare expenditures which are supposed to be increase in Korea. Finally, we suggests that the electoral apportionment be evaluated based on measurable indexes, such as political Gini coefficient and the coefficient of variation of the apportionment index, for more practical debate and consensus.

      • Regional Differences in the Distribution of Calcitonin-Gene- Related-Peptide-Immunoreactive Nerve Fibers in the Nasal Epithelium of Rat Pup, Guinea Pig, and Cat

        이상학,김정은,임재신,한승훈,이흥만,전병선 대한비과학회 1998 Journal of rhinology Vol.5 No.2

        The distribution pattern of calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactive (CGRP-IR) nerve fibers in the epithelial layer wasinvestigated with immunohistochemistry on serial sections of the whole nasal cavities of rat pups, guinea pigs and cats. The distributionpattern of CGRP-IR nerves beneath and within the epithelium demonstrated considerable regional differences in thenasal cavities of the laboratory animals cited above, and appeared to vary according to different compartments of the nasal cavity. In the rat pups, the CGRP-IR nerve fibers were densely distributed in the nasal epithelium lining both surfaces of the nasal septumand the medial sides of the naso-and maxillo-turbinates, whereas the distribution was less dense at the lateral sides of bothturbinates and the lateral nasal wall. In particular, these nerve fibers were heavily concentrated in the inferior surface of the nasoturbinateand the superior surface of the maxilloturbinate, where large numbers of nerve fibers were found extending towardthe luminal surface from the basal plexus. These features were also noted in the nasal cavity of the guinea pig and cat. The presentobservations show that one cannot consider the whole nasal cavity as a uniformly innervated region when interpreting the significanceof the mucosal CGRP-innervation. Furthermore, in relation to the sensory role of CGRP-IR nerve, these results suggestthat the different regions of the nose may have varying significance with respect to the basic protective function of this organ.

      • KCI등재

        양당제 하에서의 정치적 편향성과 정책 편향성 : 중위 정책, 포퓰리즘 정책, 보복 정책, 평균 정책의 비교

        이상학,이성규 한국제도경제학회 2018 제도와 경제 Vol.12 No.3

        양당제 대의민주주의 체제에서는 두 정당이 집권을 위해 경쟁한다. 선거에서 승리하여 집권한 정당은 자신의 정치 이념에 부합하면서 자신의 지지자들에게 도움이 되는 정책을 수립·집행한다. 이에 따라 집권 정당이 바뀌면 정책도 바뀐다. 또한 집권 정당은 지지자들과 비(非)지지자들을 ‘차별’하려는 유인 을 가진다. 집권 정당은 지지자들을 편애하지만 비지지자들에게는 무관심하거나 심지어 보복하려 할 수 있다. 이와 같은 집권 정당의 유권자 차별은 정책에도 영향을 미칠 것이다. 즉, 유권자의 차별적 대우와 정책 간에 상관관계가 존재할 수 있다. 본 논문은 집권 정당의 유권자 차별의 정도를 모형에 명시적으 로 도입함으로써 유권자에 대한 정당의 정치적 편향성이 정책 편향성으로 연결되는 과정을 이론 모형 과 시뮬레이션을 통해 분석하고자 한다. 분석 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 정치적 편향성이 클수록 정책 편향성이 크다. 둘째, 유권자 차별화의 정도에 따라 중위 정책, 포퓰리즘 정책, 보복 정책 등에 이르는 다양한 정책 편향성이 나타났다. 마지막으로, 포용적인(encompassing) 정치인이나 정당의 발생 가능성 이 발견된다. 포용적인 정치인(정당)은 유권자들의 후생 손실의 극소화를 위해 중위값보다 ‘평균값’에 가까운 정책인 ‘평균 정책’을 선택하려 한다. In a representative democracy, two parties compete, on the one hand, to adopt policy which voters favored to gain power in the national election. On the other hand, the winning or ruling party has an incentive to discriminate voters depending upon their degree of support for the party. In doing so, each party will favor its supports, but has an indifference in or even retaliate its opponents. Thus, there is an important relation between the extent of voter discrimination and policy bias. Incorporating explicitly the type of voters’ differentiation by the winning party into the model, we attempt to examine the mapping process connecting from the ‘political bias’ to the ‘policy bias’ under two-party system. The outcome of the study is summarized as follows. First, the larger the political bias, the greater the policy bias. This implies that the winning party will cater to voter’s preference by delivering their favored policy. Second, there are various biased policies the winning party adopts so as to discriminate voters, such as median, populist, and even retaliatory policies. Finally, the encompassing politicians or party have an incentive to choose ‘mean policy’ which has more voters than median policy.

      • KCI등재

        Mechanisms of Glucocorticoid Action in Chronic Rhinosinusitis

        이상학 대한천식알레르기학회 2015 Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research Vol.7 No.6

        The innate immune system and its complex interplay with the adaptive immune system are increasingly being recognized as important factors in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Adaptive immune components, including resident and inflammatory cells, and their associated mediators, have been the subject of most research in CRS. For this reason, theories of CRS pathogenesis have involved the concept that inflammation, rather than infection, is the dominant etiologic factor in CRS. Therefore, glucocorticoids are increasingly used to treat CRS. This review will outline our current knowledge of action mode of glucocorticoids in CRS.

      • KCI등재

        Allocation of Prizes in Contests with Size Effects

        이상학,이시영 한국국제경제학회 2015 International Economic Journal Vol.29 No.2

        We examine the allocation of prizes in contests in which the number of contenders affects the prizes and costs. We assume that there are two groups of contenders. The government allocates a prize to the two groups, and the contenders in each group respectively compete for the prize. Examining the prize allocation in such contests, we obtain the following results. The aggregate effort increases in the prize share of the larger group. In contests with size effects through costs, the aggregate resource expended in the contests and the aggregate payoffs are independent of group size distribution if the prize is allocated in proportion to group size. The integration of contests with size effects through prizes can yield higher aggregate effort and payoffs than the decentralized contests.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재

        중소기업 ERP 시스템 구축을 위한 주요성공요인에 관한 연구

        이상학,이철규 한국경영공학회 2008 한국경영공학회지 Vol.13 No.2

        In this study, the degree of utilization of information system of the small and medium manufacturing enterprises has been analyzed based on the questionnaire with special emphasis on the 15 successful factors that has given strong influence during ERP system application on the aspect of overall enterprise level, company size, ERP system implementation, respondents' rank, and existence of IT technicians. Based on the result of this study, we can summarize the following conclusions. First, on the overall enterprise level that implemented ERP system, the most important success factor while developing ERP was CEO's support, which seems to explain the typical characteristics of Korean small and medium enterprises. The next important factor was active participation of current employees. Regardless of the CEO's strong support and involvement, without current employees involvement, the chance of failure appears to be very high. The capability and experience of the project leader was also appeared to be important for the development of ERP system. This is quite self-explanatory because normally with an excellent project leader, team members work hard and obtain excellent result. Effective communication between departments is also an important factor for managing Efficient organization and system operation Secondly, regardless of the size of a company, existence of ERP system, rank of the employee, and the existence of IT technicians, the most important factor for establishing successful ERP system was the support of CEO. Lastly, in the case of medium enterprise that has adapted ERP system, whose respondents were intermediate rank with IT technicians, positive and voluntary participation of the employees was the most important factor for establishing ERP system. In this study, the degree of utilization of information system of the small and medium manufacturing enterprises has been analyzed based on the questionnaire with special emphasis on the 15 successful factors that has given strong influence during ERP system application on the aspect of overall enterprise level, company size, ERP system implementation, respondents' rank, and existence of IT technicians. Based on the result of this study, we can summarize the following conclusions. First, on the overall enterprise level that implemented ERP system, the most important success factor while developing ERP was CEO's support, which seems to explain the typical characteristics of Korean small and medium enterprises. The next important factor was active participation of current employees. Regardless of the CEO's strong support and involvement, without current employees involvement, the chance of failure appears to be very high. The capability and experience of the project leader was also appeared to be important for the development of ERP system. This is quite self-explanatory because normally with an excellent project leader, team members work hard and obtain excellent result. Effective communication between departments is also an important factor for managing Efficient organization and system operation Secondly, regardless of the size of a company, existence of ERP system, rank of the employee, and the existence of IT technicians, the most important factor for establishing successful ERP system was the support of CEO. Lastly, in the case of medium enterprise that has adapted ERP system, whose respondents were intermediate rank with IT technicians, positive and voluntary participation of the employees was the most important factor for establishing ERP system.

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