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Hypocotyl-derived callus cultures of Brassica pekinensis cv. Chunseng were grown on Murashige-Skoog medium containing NaCl, Na_2SO_4 and mannitol to clarify the effect of salts on callus growth, proline accumulation and water relations. Na_2SO_4 was more inhibitory than NaCl when survival rate, growth and fresh:dry weight ratios of established callus were measured. Fresh weight in 0.25% NaCl treatment was more than twice as increasable in comparison to the same concentration of Na_2SO_4 or control. Proline concentration was increased on either salt, attained at highest levels at the 5th subculture, and fluctuated as affected by both salts or mannitol. Concentrations of redeucing sugars were sharply increased after 2 or 3 times of subculture and decreased by increasing subculture. The water and osmotic potential in callus reached a maximum negative value after two weeks in culture, regardless of salt type and mannitol and tugor remained relatively constant on both salt and mannitol treatments.
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of plant growth regulators, medium salt strength and nitrogen ratio on cell culture of Gymnema sylvestre. Cell growth was inhibited by 2,4-D concentrations higher than 1.0 mg L-1, but not by kinetin concentrations lower than 0.5 mg L-1. Maximal cell growth was obtained at 1.0 mg L-1 2,4-D and 0.1 mg L-1 kinetin. Cell growth was greatest at 1x MS medium but high strength MS medium inhibited cell growth due to low water potential in the medium. In NH4+:NO3- ratio of 0:60 (ie. 0.0 mM NH4+ and 60 mM NO3-), cells growth was highest but cells were smaller and whiter compared with those in other NH4+:NO3- ratio. Reduced cell growth was observed with continuous culture. These results suggested that optimal culture of Gymnema sylvestre could be achieved with 1x MS medium with 20:40 ratio of NH4+:NO3- supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 2,4-D and 0.1 mg L-1 kinetin.
Comparative studies on medium supply in bioreactors (raft, immersion and ebb and flood) have revealed that multiplication and growth of Alocasia Amazonica were greatest in the raft system, while lowest in ebb and flood system. In the raft system, the basal part of the shoots was continuously in contact with medium, which enabled a constant uptake of nutrients as well as aeration to the explants. The number and the size of leaf stomata were higher in the raft system compared with immersion and ebb&flood system. In the immersion system, plantlets were deformed and epidermal cells in leaves were irregular with a large intercellular space. The results suggested that the medium supply should be controlled properly to maintain normal and healthy plantlets during liquid cultures in bioreactors which affects morphology and physiology of the plantlets.