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Acinetobacter baumannii is categorized as a red alert pathogen that is increasingly associated with a high mortality rate in infected patients because of its resistance to extensive antibiotics. This study evaluated the antibacterial activities of some essential oils (tee tree, rosemary, and lavender oils) against 18 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MRAB). The carbapenemase screening Hodge test showed that all 20 strains of A. baumannii were resistant to imipenem. The identification of multidrug-resistant microbes was carried out using the VITEK system. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils was tested by a disk diffusion method against MRAB. In the disk diffusion method, tea tree showed the largest increase in inhibition size compared to lavender oil, and rosemary had no antibacterial effect. These results proved the antimicrobial effect of multidrug resistance A. baumannii. Tee tree oil would be a useful alternative natural product for the treatment and prevention of most common human pathogens and MRAB infections. This is expected to be used as an antimicrobial agent, such as hand disinfectant using natural essential oil in the future. Acinetobacter baumannii는 광범위한 항생제에 대한 저항성으로 인해 감염된 환자의 사망률이 높아지는 적색 경보 병원체로 분류됩니다. 이 연구에서 다제 내성 A. baumannii (MRAB)의 18가지 임상 분리 균주에 대해 일부 에센셜 오일(티트리, 로즈마리, 라벤더 오일)의 항균 활성을 평가하고자 하였다. Carbapenemase 선별을 위한 Hodge 시험법은 A. baumannii 의 20 가지 균주가 모두 imipenem에 내성이 있음을 보여주었습니다. 다제 내성 미생물의 확인은 VITEK 시스템을 통해 수행하였다. 에센셜 오일의 항균 활성은 MRAB에 대한 디스크 확산방법으로 평가하였다. 디스크 확산 방법에서 tee tree는 라벤더오일에 비해 억제 크기가 가장 크게 증가했으며, 로즈마리는 항균 효과가 없었다. 티 트리 오일은 가장 일반적인 인간 병원균 및MRAB 감염의 치료 및 예방을 위한 대체 천연 제품으로 유용할것으로 보인다. 따라서 이 연구의 결과는 다제 내성 A. baumannii의 항균 효과를 입증했으며, 미래에 천연 에센셜 오일을 사용하는 손 소독제와 같은 항균제로 사용될 것으로 예상됩니다.
The pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganism have been isolated from the indoor airborne, the closest environment of human beings. Our purpose were to investigate the distribution of fungi and bacteria in indoor airborne sampled from 7 locations in Namseoul University for 2 months from September to October, 2010. The isolated bacteria were identified by Gram stain and biochemical test using VITEKTM system, also The fungus were identified by LPCB. The experiment on microorganism concentration of indoor air carried out and the average of total microorganism was measured. When airborne bacteria were isolated and identified. The isolation rates of Gram positive cocci, Gram positive bacilli, Gram negative bacilli, and Gram negative cocci were 38.3%, 22.4%, 2.7%, 0%, respectively. In Gram positive cocci, the most strains were identified as Micrococcus spp. In Gram positive bacilli, the most strains were identified as Bacillus spp. The frequently isolated fungi were Aspergillus sp, Penicillium sp, Alternaria sp, Rhizopus sp, Mucor sp. respectively. Further systematic studies are necessary with an emphasis on species identification. Key Words : Microorganism, Fungus, Indoor Airborne, Micrococcus, Aspergillus
The distributed species and number of viable microorganisms in drinking water were monitored according to water dispenser maintenance. our purpose was to investigate the distribution of bacteria in drinking water dispenser. To analyze possible dispenser contaminations sampling were performed from 14 locations in Namseoul University for 3 months from March to May, 2010. The isolated bacteria were identified by Gram stain and biochemical test using VITEKⅡ systems. The microorganism concentrations around the water discharge areas were measured and the average of total microorganisms was determined. The number of bacteria were measured by McFarland turbidity. The water and water discharge areas were separated and identified. The isolation rates of Gram positive cocci and Gram negative bacilli were 56.5%, 17.4% respectively. The frequently isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterbacter sakazakii, Alcaligenes faecalis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus hominis, respectively. Further systematic studies are necessary with an emphasis on species identification. Key Words : Microorganisms, Water Discharge Areas, Drinking Water, McFarland
Recently, the rapid growth of the companion animal market has led to the development of animal disease diagnosis kits. Therefore, the utility of the introduction of biomarkers for the development of animal molecular diagnostics is being reevaluated. A good biomarker should be precise and reliable, distinguish between normal and diseased states, and differentiate between different diseases. Recently reported genetic markers, tumor markers (cell free DNA, circulating tumor cells, granzyme, and skin tumors), and others (brucellosis, programmed death recovery-1, symmetric dimethylarginine, periostin, and cysteinyl leukotrien) have been developed. The biomarkers are used for risk prediction or for the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease progression. The most important criteria for related biomarkers are disease specificity. Many potential biomarkers have emerged from laboratory and test studies, but they have not been validated in independent or large-scale clinical studies. Candidate biomarkers evaluate disease associations, verify the effectiveness of biomarkers for early detection and disease progression, and incorporate them into humans and animals. In the future, it will be necessary to reevaluate the utility of well-structured biomarker-based research and study the development of kits that can be used in on-site tests in accordance with the trends introduced in the diagnosis of animal diseases. 최근 반려동물 시장의 급격한 성장으로 인해 동물용 질병 진단키트의 개발이 이루어지고 있다. 이에 동물 분자진단 개발을위한 바이오마커의 도입으로 효용성을 재평가하고 있다. 좋은바이오 마커는 정확하고 신뢰할 수 있어야 하고, 정상 상태와 질병 상태를 구별하고, 다른 질병을 구별해야 한다. 최근 보고된유전마커나 세포유리 DNA, 순환종양세포, granzyme, 피부종양에 관한 종양마커의 개발이 활발히 이루어지고 있으며, 기타로는 브루셀라증, programmed death receptor-1, symmetric dimethylarginine, periostin, cysteinyl leukotrien이 활발히도입되고 있다. 따라서 바이오마커는 위험 예측에 사용되거나질병 진행의 스크리닝, 진단 및 모니터링에 사용된다. 관련 바이오 마커에 대한 가장 중요한 기준은 질병 특이성이며 많은 잠재적 바이오 마커가 실험실 및 시험 연구에서 출현했지만, 독립적인 실험이나 대규모 임상 연구에서 검증이 부족하다. 후보 바이오 마커는 질병과 연관성을 평가하고, 조기 발견, 질병 진행에대한 바이오 마커의 유효성을 검증하여서 인간 및 동물에게 접목하게 된다. 향후 잘 구조화 된 바이오마커 기반 연구의 효용성을 재평가하고 동물 질병 진단에 도입되는 추세에 맞춰 현장검사에서 활용될 수 있는 키트의 개발에 대한 연구가 요구돼야 할것으로 사료된다.
Recently, the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria due to abuse of antimicrobials, pathogenic bacteria from bacteria infections, and various antibiotic resistant bacteria tends to increase. In 2005 and 2008, isolate bacteria were investigated at some hospitals situated in Gyeonggi-do. The most isolate bacteria, such as S. aureus, E faecalis, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii) were investigated by year and their susceptibility and resistance to several antibiotics were studied. In 2008, the resistance S. aureus to teicoplanin increased by 16%. The resistance of E. faecalis to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin 500 increased by 10%, 9% respectively. The resistance of P. aeruginosa to ceftazidim and pipercillin increased by 47%, 55% respectively. The resistance of A. baumannii to ampicillin and imipenem increased by 22%,66% respectively. In conclusion, this study showed the increased resistance of frequently isolated bacteria. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the strain type, specimen type, and duration of antibiotic resistance by category.
Oriental cosmetics make the skin radiant by supplement and circulate qihyul(氣血). Oriental cosmetics aim at the radiant skin based on inner health. It accords the new trend of 21th century, well-being and naturalism. Recently a lot of new oriental cosmetics have been developed and enjoyed great popularity. The research of oriental cosmetics elucidated the active compounds having whitening effect and wrinkle cure effect. And the anti-acne and anti-atopy cosmetics have been researched. The development of oriental cosmetics should be based on oriental medical theory.
Recently, the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria due to abuse of antimicrobials, pathogenic bacteria from bacteria infections, and various antibiotic resistant bacteria tends to increase. In 2005 and 2008, clinical isolated bacteria were investigated at some hospitals situated in Gyeonggi-do. The most isolate bacteria, such as E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, and S. marcescens) were investigated by year and their susceptibility and resistance to several antibiotics were studied. In 2008, the resistance E. coli to cephalothin and ticacillin increased by 62%. The resistance of K. pneumoniae to cefepim and ceftriaxone increased by 34%, 22% respectively. The resistance of P. mirabilis to aztreonam and cefazolin increased by 49%, 35% respectively. The resistance of S. marcescens to ceftazidim increased by 13%. In conclusion, this study showed the increased resistance of clinical isolated gram negative rods. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the strain type, specimen type, and duration of antibiotic resistance by category. Key Words : antimicrobial resistance, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, ESBL, Cephalothin
Respiratory viruses (RVs) cause infections in hospital environments through direct contact with infected visitors. In infection control, it causes major problems of acquired infections in hospitals by respiratory viruses. The surveillance data derived from clinical laboratories are often used to properly allocate medical resources to hospitals and communities for treatment, consumables, and diagnostic product purchases in the institutions and public health sectors that provide health care. An early diagnosis is essential in infection with respiratory viruses, and methods that can be used in diagnostic methods using respiratory samples include virus culture, molecular diagnosis, and analysis. A microchip provides a new strategy for developing a more diverse and powerful technology called point-of-care testing. The importance of the respiratory system should be applied strictly to the infection control guidelines to ensure the occupational health and safety of health care workers. Evidence of clinical efficacy, including this study, is challenging the long-standing paradigm for infection propagation. Additional assistance will be needed for frequent tests to detect respiratory viruses in inpatients who have begun to show new respiratory symptoms indicating infections requiring efforts to control the infection.