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Human activities have enhanced the influx of heavy metals to aquatic ecosystem and changed theabiotic environment such as the sediments supporting benthic organisms. The levels of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the benthic gastropod Oxyloma hirasei and the sediments around their habitat were investigated to examine heavy metal levels and the potential of the gastropod as a bioindicator. We detected different levels of heavy metals in the sediments of two wetland areas, Upo and Mokpo, in the relatively well-conserved Upo wetland, Ramsar Convention Area. Oxyloma hirasei had higher concentrations of heavy metals except Cr and Ni in their soft tissues than in their shells (Cd: 2.10∼3.16, Cu: 19.73∼28.66, Pb: 0.67∼1.17, Zn: 216.1∼285.7 μg/g dry weight in the soft tissues; Cr: 1.19∼2.58, Ni: 0.47∼1.16 μg/g dry weight in the shells). Differences in the Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb concentrations in O. hirasei soft tissues reflected differences in heavy metal concentrations in the sediments at the sampling sites. The coefficients of variation for Cd, Cu and Pb were lower than those for other metals in the soft tissues. Levels of Cd in the tissues of O. hirasei were O. hirasei appears to be a promising bioindicator particularly for Cd.
Upo wetland is the largest inland wetland in Korea as Ramsar Convention Area. The purposesof the study were to investigate the levels of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the sediment and Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata from three sites of the wetland and to assess the potential of the gastropod as a bioindicator for heavy metal levels. The gastropods were dissected into shell and soft tissue without the digestive and excretive organs. The levels of Cd, Cu and Pb were below the guideline of Soil Environment site (0.32 μg/g) than Sajipo site (0.28 μg/g). Cu and Zn showed the highest value in Sajipo as 43.5 μg/g and 39.8 μg/g, respectively while the concentrations of Pb and Zn were the highest in Upstream as 58.8 μg/g and 138 μg/g, respectively. In the soft tissues and shells of the gastropod, the overall comon trend in the concentrations of the heavy metals was revealed with the following order: Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd and Ni > Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Cd, respectively. Although the soft tissues exhibited higher concentrations of the heavy metals except Ni than the shell in the gastropod, the levels of Cd and Pb in the gastropod were generally below the restrictive values set up by Korea Fod & Drug Administration. From Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) results, the concentrations of Pb and Zn in the sediments among the sites were reflected on the soft tissue (Pb) and the shell (Pb and Zn) of the gastropod in the same order. The lower value of coefficient of variation (CV) in Pb concentration of the shell than in that of the soft tissue supports the usefulness of the shell as a bioindicator for Pb pollution. Although the CV value in the shell was a little higher than in the soft tissue, DMRT results and the stability of incorporated Zn into the shell support the use of the shell of the gastropod
The purpose is to try to find the a driving principle on the sports exchange and cooperation between South and North Korea of「Participation of Government」. The methods of this study are considered of reviews of literature and content analyses. The conclusion of this study runs as follows: first, the principle of internationality, Second, the principle of approach of the public, Third, the principle of to increase the national homogeneity, Fourthly, the principle of nonpolitics, Fifthiy, the principle of originality, Sixthly, the principle of variety, Lastly, the principle of national unification. Conclusively, assuming the purpose and target of the present sports exchange and cooperation between South and North Korea, the sports exchange and cooperation between South and North Korea must be provided against the national unification and after that. Through the more exchange and cooperation the activation of the sports exchange and cooperation must be completed. The sports exchange and cooperation between South and North Korea must be continued and the 21C unification and future-oriented national sense must be preceded to do much toward improving the relation between South and North Korea and preparing the circumstances of peace settlement through the activation of the sports exchange and cooperation between South and North Korea.