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      • KCI등재

        치과용 석고계 매몰재의 특성에 관한 연구

        김경선,우이형,최부병,Kim, Kyoung-Sun,Woo, Yi-Hyung,Choi, Boo-Byung 대한치과보철학회 1990 대한치과보철학회지 Vol.28 No.1

        The properties of a investment material can be described by the consistency at the slurry state, the setting time, the compressive strength and the thermal expansion during the casting. In this study the effect of the production parameters which are included the ratio of quartz and cristobalite, the content of binder, the water powder ratio and the content and concentration of additives on the Properties of the gypsum-bonded investments has been investigated with help of the consistency test, the vicat needle test, the compressive strength test, the thermal expansion test, x-ray diffraction and DTA thermal differential test. The experimental results showed that the constitution of a investment with W/P ratio of 0.34, 30% of gypsum, 0.8% aluminium sulfate, 2% magnesium sulfate, 0.6% sodium phosphate was adapted for the properties of the KDA Spec. No. 13 type I investment. The important experimental results are summarized as follows. 1. The consistency of the investment decreased with increasing amount of aluminium sulfate and decreasing amount of sodium phosphate. An addition of magnesium sulfate up to 2% an increase of the consistency was shown. But 3% magnesium sulfate in investment showed a decrease of the consistency. The consistency did not vary significantly with a variation of the content of gypsum and cristobalite and the W/P ratio. 2. Aluminium sulfate and the magnesium sulfate promoted the hardening and the aluminium phosphate delayed the hardening. The setting time increased with amount of gypsum. The effect of the matrix on the setting time was insignificant. With the W/P ratio of 0.34 the setting time was 14 min. 3. The compressive strength decreased with the amount of aluminium sulfate up to 0.25% and increased with the amount of aluminium sulfate greater than 3%. The compressive strength decreased as decreasing the amount of magnesium sulfate and gypsum and as increasing the W/P ratio. The effect of the refractory on the compressive strength was also not significant. With the W/P ratio of 0.34 the compressive strength was $34Kg/mm^2$. 4. The 1st thermal expansion was found at the temperature near and the steady state or the contraction stage was found at the temperature between $250^{\circ}C$ and $500^{\circ}C$. After this stage the 2nd thermal expansion took place at the temperature near $500^{\circ}C$. The amount of thermal expansion increased with decreasing the content of magnesium sulfate, aluminium sulfate and gypsum and the W/P ratio. And the amount of thermal expansion increased as the content of sodium phosphate and cristobalite. With the W/P ratio of 0.34 the amount of total expansion was 1.2%.

      • KCI등재

        도재(陶材)와 도재(陶材) 소부용(燒付用) Ni-Cr계(系) 합금간(合金間)의 결합력(結合力)에 관(關)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究)

        김경선,Kim, Kyoung-Sun 대한치과보철학회 1981 대한치과보철학회지 Vol.19 No.1

        The effects of the opaque porcelain firing temperature, the bonding agent and the degassing prior to the opaque firing On the bond strength were investigated by means of the tensile shear stIe$. The diffusional behaviours at the interface of the porcelain and the alloy, and .the microstructures of the ceramic and metal composite were studied for understanding the bonding mechanism. The results obtained in this experiment were summarizd as follow; 1. With no application of bonding agent, the tensile shear strength of the specimen firing at $1840^{\circ}F$ was higher than that of the specimen firing at $1760^{\circ}F$. 2. The highest bond strength was obtained by application of bonding agent without degassing prior to the opaque firing. 3. Application of bonding agent after the degassing showed the lowest bond strength. 4. The greater number of pores were observed at the firing temperature of $1840^{\circ}F$ than that of $1760^{\circ}F$ in the porcelain and the interface respectively.

      • KCI등재

        치과용 석고계 매몰재의 특성에 관한 연구

        김경선,우이형,최부병,Kim, Kyoung-Sun,Woo, Yi-Hyung,Choi, Boo-Byung 대한치과보철학회 1991 대한치과보철학회지 Vol.29 No.1

        The properties of a investment material can be described by the consistency at the slurry state, the setting time, the compressive strength and the thermal expansion during the casting. In this study the effect of the production parameters which are included the ratio of quartz and cristobalite, the content of binder, the water powder ratio and the content and concentration of additives on the properties of the gypsum-bonded investments has been investigated with help of the consistency test, the vicat needle test, the compressive strength test, the thermal expansion test, x-ray diffraction and DTA thermal differential test. The experimental results showed that the constitution of a investment with W/P ratio of 0.34, 30% of gypsum, 0.8% aluminium sulfate, 2% magnesium sulfate, 0.6% sodium phosphate was adapted for the properties of the KDA Spec. No. 13 type I investment. The important experimental results are summarized as follows. 1. The consistency of the investment decreased with increasing amount of aluminium sulfate and decreasing amount of sodium phosphate. An addition of magnesium sulfate up to 2% an increase of the consistency was shown. But 3% magnesium sulfate in investment showed a decrease of consistency. The consistency did not vary significantly with a variation of the content of gypsum and cristobalite and the W/P ratio. 2. Aluminium sulfata and the magnesium sulfate promoted the hardening and the aluminium phoshpate delayed the hardening. The setting time increased with amount of gypsum. The effect of the matrix on the setting time was insignificant. With the W/P ratio of 0.34 the setting time was 14 min. 3. The compressive strength decreased with the amount of aluminium sulfate up to 0.25% and increased with the amount of aluminium sulfate greater than 3%. The compressive strength decreased as decreasing the amount of magnesium sulfate and gypsum and as increasing the W/P ratio. The effect fo the refractory on the compressive strength was also not significant. With the W/P ratio of 0.34 the compressive strength was $34Kg/mm^2$. 4. The 1st thermal expansion was found at the temperature near $250^{\circ}C$ and the steady state or the contraction stage was found at the temperature between $250^{\circ}C$ and $500^{\circ}C$. After this stage the 2nd thermal expansion took place at the temperature near $500^{\circ}C$. The amount of thermal expansion increased with decreasing the content of magnesium sulfate, aluminium sulfate and gypsum and the W/P ratio. And the amount of thermal expansion increased as the content of sodium phosphate ad cristobalite. With the W/P ratio of 0.34 the amount of total expansion was 1.2%.

      • KCI등재

        해산패류의 계절법 표준대사와 미치는 승온 효과 1 . 순화온도의 영향

        김경선(Kyoung Sun Kim),진평(Pyung Chin) 한국수산과학회 2002 한국수산과학회지 Vol.35 No.5

        본 연구는 계절적으로 다른 수은에 순화되어 있는 패류에 대한 승온 효과를 분별하고 특히 시기별로 성장이 다른데 따른 승온 효과를 판별하기 위해 수행하였다. 실험 동물은 남해안 산 참굴, Crassostrea gigas, 바지락, Ruditapes philippinarum 및 진주담치, Mytilus edulis의 3종이었으며 각 계절별로 채집하여 순화되어 있는 계절 수온과 순화 온도보다 4, 7 및 10℃와 3, 6 및 9℃로 승온시킨 실험 해수에서 표준산소소비량과 여수량을 측정하였다. 생활사로 보아 가을에 치패기에 있는 참굴은 14℃ 순화 수온 이상의 수온상승은 오히려 생리적 저해를 주었고 순화 수온이 7℃인 겨울에는 9℃의 승온도 효과적이었다. 그러나 성패에서 여름에 순화수온 24℃ 이상의 승온은 저해를 주었다. 봄에 치패기에 있는 바지락은 순화수온보다 6℃의 승온도 효과가 현저하였으나 그 이상의 수온 상습은 오히려 저해를 주었고 가을과 겨울에는 순화수온보다 온도가 9℃까지 승온되어도 현저히 효과적이었다. 그러나 여름에는 순화수온 24℃ 이상의 승온은 현저한 저해영향을 주었다. 진주담치는 봄 치패기에 순화수온보다 3℃ 승온은 매우 효과적이었으나 그 이상 수온 상승은 저해를 주었다. 여름과 가을의 순화수온보다 높은 수온상승은 영향이 경미하였으며, 겨울에는 승온되어도 별다른 승온 효과를 보이지 않았다 이상으로 보아 온배수의 승온 효과는 패류의 생활사 중 겨울에는 매우 효과적이었으나 치패기에 있어서는 순화 수온 보다 다소 높은 수온 상승도 오히려 저해 영향을 줄 수 있는 것으로 나타났다. Influence of increased temperature on the standard metabolism in three species of marine bivalves, Crassostrea gigas, Ruditapes philippinarum and Mytilus edulis, acclimated to seasonal water temperatures and collected from the south coast of Korea, were examined in the laboratory. The standard oxygen consumption and filtration rates in the 3 species were measured respectively at the experimental temperature, 4, 7 and 10℃ or 3, 6 and 9℃ higher than the mean seasonal water temperature. When the experimental temperatures were higher than the seasonal water temperature, the rates of C. gigas decreased in autumn and spring, and increased in winter, while there was thermal stress in summer. The rates of R. philippinarum increased in spring when the experimental temperatures were 3℃ and 6℃ higher than the seasonal water temperature, but the rates increased in autumn and winter when the experimental temperature was even 9℃ higher than the seasonal water temperature. In summer, metabolic activities of R. philippinarum decreased significantly at temperature higher than acclimation temperature. The rates of M. edulis increased in spring when the experimental temperatures were 3℃ higher than the seasonal water temperature but the rates were stressed by the increased temperature above 3℃. In winter, increased temperature did not affect the metabolic activities of M. edulis. These results suggested that the standard metabolism of the three marine bivalves in summer was stressed by the increased temperature, whereas the metabolism was activated in winter.

      • KCI등재

        여군전투복의 기능성 향상을 위한 디자인 연구 -여군전투복 착용실태 조사를 중심으로-

        김경선 ( Kim Kyoung Sun ),남윤자 ( Nam Yun Ja ),김민경 ( Kim Min Kyoung ) 한국기초조형학회 2016 기초조형학연구 Vol.17 No.5

        본 연구의 목적은 현행 얼룩무늬 여군 전투복에 대한 실태 조사를 통해 현행 전투복의 문제점을 파악하고, 기능성이 향상된 여군 전투복 디자인을 위한 기초자료를 제공하고자 하는 것이다. 문헌 및 참고문헌 고찰을 통해 맞음새 적합성 및 동작 적합성, 디자인 및 사용성, 관리성을 평가하기 위한 설문문항을 구성하고 국방부의 도움을 받아 여군 전투복 착용 실태조사를 위한 예비조사로서 심층인터뷰를 수행하였다. 심층인터뷰를 통해 수정, 보완된 설문 문항을 통해 현재 군복무 중인 여군 550명을 대상으로 하여 착의실태를 조사하였다. 설문조사 결과 여군도 남군과 차이가 없는 다양한 영역에서 활동하고 있었으며, 따라서 여군 전투복도 다양한 관점에서 기능성 개선을 위한 디자인 연구가 필요함을 알 수 있었다. 또한 현행 여군 전투복의 치수에 대해서는 맞는 치수가 없어서 맞춰 입는 경우가 다수 보고되어서 보급형 여군 전투복의 치수체계 개선을 통한 조형성의 확보가 필요함을 알 수 있었다. 맞음새 적합성과 동작 적합성에 대해서는 현 여군 전투복은 여성체형에 적합하지 않게 설계되어 지나치게 여유량이 많고 동작이 구속되며, 착탈 방식 및 착의법에 대한 만족도 또한 낮아서 전반적인 개선이 필요함을 알 수 있었다. 기존 전투복에서 개선되어야 할 부분에 대해서는 동작적합성과 착탈 용이성, 맞음새 적합성, 관리성, 디자인 순으로 응답하여 기능복의 기본적인 요구사항에 대한 불만족을 파악할 수 있었다. 전투복은 다양한 요구사항을 지니며 이러한 요소들은 단독적이기 보다는 서로 유기적인 관계를 지니므로 동작 적합성, 착탈 용이성, 맞음새 적합성, 관리성, 디자인성이 모두 함께 개선된 디자인을 통해서 전투복의 기능성 향상이 가능할 것이다. 본 연구의 결과는 실제 군복무 중인 여군을 대상으로 실태조사를 실시하여 현행 전투복의 현실적인 문제점을 파악했다는 의의를 지니며, 군복 디자인 시 고려해야할 사항들을 제안함으로써 여군 복장 개선의 기본 방향을 제시하고자 하였다. 후속연구에서는 본 기초연구에서 디자인 시 고려해야할 요소로 파악된 기능성 향상을 위한 사이즈 체계 설정 및 패턴 설계, 전투복의 소속감과 자긍심을 유발할 수 있는 디자인 상징물에 대한 연구가 이루어져야 할 것이다. This paper conducts a survey on the current state of battledress for female soldiers in the defence department of the Republic of Korea. The survey seeks to address current issues regarding uniform, and provide a baseline for performance enhancement and female soldier uniform design. Through desk research and extensive study of reference material we comprised a survey questionnaire based on fit, comfort, mobility, design & usability, and maintenance. By way of establishing an applicable baseline, together with the support of the department of defence, we conducted extensive interviews to establish the current state of battledress for Korean female soldiers. With changes reflected from said interviews, the survey list was given to 550 active duty soldiers to discover the current state of army fatigues for female soldiers. What the survey revealed was like male soldiers, female soldiers also serve in a diverse capacity and therefore require a poly-functional design approach to improved performance. Another prominent point is the lack of standard issue uniforms that fit, and therefore tailored out of pocket by the individuals themselves, calling for a dire need for a revised and detailed size chart. Regarding fitting and performance appropriateness, it was discovered that soldier uniforms were not designed for the female body; too much space in certain areas, while others lacked and therefore hindered movement. Overall dressing and undressing of the uniform was found to be uncomfortable and cumbersome reiterating the need for an extensive overhaul of the female soldier standard issue uniform. Issues on the current standard issue uniform were mobility appropriateness, undressing ease, fitting performance, maintenance, design in that order, showing overall discontent for the basic functions of the current uniform. A soldier’s uniform is expected to hold up in a vast array of environments and rather than seeing each category as separate, it is better to view them together, holistically. Namely, mobility appropriateness, undressing ease, fitting performance, maintenance, and design should be developed for a more functional, durable and therefore reliable design. The result of this paper is in the quantifying the current needs of female soldiers in regards their issued uniform through interviews and extensive survey. Also, providing a checklist and general direction when developing soldier uniforms in the future. Follow-up research may entail detailed size charts, uniform pattern designs, design insignia to imbue unity and confidence based on the findings of this study.

      • KCI등재

        한국 성인 여성의 연령대별 체형변화에 대한 연구

        김경선 ( Kyoung Sun Kim ),한현숙 ( Hyunsook Han ),남윤자 ( Yun Ja Nam ) 한국의류산업학회 2017 한국의류산업학회지 Vol.19 No.1

        In this study, change trends and specific times for change in body size were sought to be identified by using manual measurements for Korean adult women at 20 to 89 of age, along with examinations of change trends and specific times of change in body shape based on body index values. The examinations of means, deviations, and variation coefficients revealed that there was a tendency of most height related measures to decrease. In addition, combined with decrease in height, growth in weight led to increased BMI, thus resulting in increase in measures of circumference, thickness, and breadth in the torso area. The BMI trends showed that with increasing age, BMI increased, reaching the peak between the ages of 55 and 59 and then decreasing from 64 of age, with the steepest increase in BMI at ages from 50 to 54. The examination of differences in the body flatness ratio for different parts of body found that with increasing age the ratio decreased, indicating a tendency for gradual change to round body shapes. The analysis of 3D body shape found that there were more back-bends and lowered shoulder levels with age, accompanied with a tendency for more bended legs and more inclined-forward necks. The key trends in changes in body measurements by age and detailed estimates of 3D standard body shape drawn out from this study are expected to significantly contribute to establishing a basic database for generating patterns reflecting age features of Korean adult females.

      • KCI등재

        의복제작을 위한 3차원 인체형상각도의 자동측정 연구

        김경선 ( Kim Kyoung Sun ),남윤자 ( Nam Yun Ja ),한현숙 ( Han Hyun Sook ) 한국기초조형학회 2016 기초조형학연구 Vol.17 No.5

        본 연구의 목적은 3차원 인체 형상 데이터 분석 방법의 효율성 향상을 위해 3차원 인체 형상 각도를 자동 측정하는 프로그램을 개발하고 평가하는 것이다. 의복제작을 목적으로 하는 선행연구 고찰을 통해 3차원 인체 형상 각도자동측정프로그램에 반영할 측정항목 22개를 도출하여 SNU Auto BAM 프로그램을 개발하였다. SNU Auto BAM 프로그램은 정의된 각도 항목이 자동 측정되어 데이터화 되며, 각도의 측정은 세 점에 의한 각도 측정, 두 점과 수평면에 대한 각도 측정, 또는 두 점과 수직면에 대한 각도의 측정을 통해서 이루어진다. 측정 결과는 엑셀 파일로 내보내지도록 프로그램이 구성되었다. 사이즈코리아 6차인체치수 조사사업(2010)의 20대, 30대, 40대, 50대 연령별 여성 3차원 표준형상을 연구 대상으로 측정을 실시하였다. SNU Auto BAM 프로그램의 사용성 평가를 위해 기존의 인체 형상 각도 측정 방법과 측정치를 비교 분석한 결과 기존의 각도측정방법 보다 높은 수준의 반복 정밀도와 시간적인 면에서의 효율성을 보였다. 또한 2차원 데이터를 시각적인 판단에 의해 분석하게 되는 기존 방식보다는 자동으로 각도를 획득하는 SNU Auto BAM 프로그램이 측정의 정확도면에서도 우수한 것으로 평가되었다. SNU Auto BAM은 전통적인 방식으로는 접근이 불가능 했던 수평면에 투영된 인체형상에 대한 각도 항목을 획득할 수 있다는 장점을 지니며, 사진측정을 통한 인체 각도 측정의 오차와 왜곡 문제를 해결할 수 있다. 뿐만 아니라 아니라 3차원 형상 데이터를 이용해서 수작업으로 각도를 측정하는 과정에 효율성과 정확성을 부여하고 측정데이터의 신뢰성을 높이며, 손쉬운 반복 측정을 통해 재현성을 확보함으로써 3차원 인체형상 데이터를 보다 쉽게 가공하여 추후 의복제작을 위한 체형 파악에 다양하게 활용될 수 있을 것으로 기대된다. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a program that automatically measures the 3D human body shape angle to enhance the efficiency of 3D human body shape data analysis methods. By considering advanced research for creating clothes, 22 measurement items reflected for the 3D human body shape angle automatic measuring programs were deduced to develop the SNU Auto BAM program . The SNU Auto BAM program automatically measures and databases the defined angle items; the measurement of angles takes place by angle measurement using three points, that on two points and a horizontal plane, and that on two points and the angle of vertical plane. A program was configured to export the measurement results to an excel file. 3D female standard shapes of 20s, 30s, 40s, and 50s of the 6th size Korea human body shape project (2010) were set as the research subject. As a result of comparative analysis with the conventional human body shape angle measuring method for evaluating the usability of the SNU Auto BAM program, higher efficiency was shown in the repetitive precision and time aspects. In addition, the SNU Auto BAM program, which automatically obtains angles as compared to the conventional method that analyzes 2D data with visual judgment, was evaluated to have outstanding accuracy of measurement. The SNU Auto BAM has an advantage that it gains angle items on human shapes that reflect horizontal planes; this was impossible with traditional methods and can solve human body angle measurement error and distortion through photo measurement. Moreover, efficiency and accuracy are added to the process of measuring angles by using 3D shape data with manual operation to increase reliability and reproducibility; this is secured through easy repeated measurement for easy 3D human body shape data manufacturing, in which it is expected to be diversely used to investigate body shapes to create clothes.

      • KCI등재

        어머니의 마음의식, 양육스트레스 및 양육행동과 유아의 정서지능 간의 관계

        김경선(Kyoung Sun Kim),임지영(Ji Young Lim) 한국아동학회 2014 兒童學會誌 Vol.35 No.3

        This study explored the relationships between maternal mind-mindedness, parenting stress, parenting behaviors and preschoolers` emotional intelligence. The subjects consisted of 107 preschoolers and their mothers. The result of this study are summarized as follows; First, maternal mind-mindedness had an indirect effect on parenting behaviors through parenting stress. Second, maternal mind-mindedness had a direct impact on emotional intelligence. These results clearly indicate that maternal mind-mindedness plays a crucial role in parenting behaviors and preschoolers` emotional intelligence.

      • KCI등재후보

        대한치과의사협회의 금연활동

        김경선(Kyoung-Sun Kim) 대한치과의사협회 2010 대한치과의사협회지 Vol.48 No.5

        Korean dental association (KDA) intensively drives no smoking activities for a healthy life of Korean people. In this article, hazardous facts of smoking in oral system are reviewed from the point of view of dental science. Various activities against smoking including campaigns, conferences, polls, exhibitions and publications driven by KDA are introduced.

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