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황강석 ( Kangseok Hwang ), 이정훈 ( Jeong Hoon Lee ), 박정호 ( Jeong Ho Park ), 차형기 ( Hyung Kee Cha ), 최정화 ( Jung Hwa Choi ), 이형빈 ( Hyungbeen Lee ), 박준성 ( Junseong Park ), 강명희 ( Myounghee Kang ) 한국수산과학회(구 한국수산학회) 2016 한국수산과학회지 Vol.49 No.4
At the first time in South Korea, the state of the art acoustic systems were mounted on the R/V Tamgu 21. The acoustic systems are an EK80 broadband echosounder (18, 38, 70, 120, 200 and 333 kHz) which has two beam modes such as continuous wave (narrowband) and frequency modulation (broadband), an ME70 multibeam echosounder (70-120 kHz), and a SH90 sonar (111.5-115.5 kHz). Acoustic data from broadband mode have a very short range resolution, a large detection range, a high signal to noise ratio, and a wide and consecutive frequency response. In ME70, each individual beam consisted in a multibeam plays a role as a spilt beam. The first trial of the cutting edge acoustic system installed on the R/V Tamgu 21 was conducted from 15 Feb to 29 Feb 2016 in East Sea, South Sea and East China Sea. The properties of the acoustic systems were elucidated and exploratory results from three systems were exhibited. Lastly, issues which should be considered and future research plan are mentioned.
The mouse bioassay and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) post-column oxidation method are different methods of quantifying paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. In this study, we compared their ability to accurately quantify the toxicity levels in two types of field sample (oysters and mussels) with different toxin profiles for routine regulatory monitoring. A total of 72 samples were analyzed by both methods, 44 of which gave negative results, with readings under the limit of detection of the mouse bioassay (40 μg/100 g saxitoxin [STX] eq). In 14 oysters, the major toxin components were gonyautoxin (GTX) 1, -2, -3, -4, -5, decarbamoylgonyautoxin-2 (dcGTX2), and decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX), while 14 mussels tested positive for dcSTX, GTX2,-3, -4, -5, dcGTX2, neosaxitoxin (NEO), STX, and dcSTX. When the results obtained by both methods were compared in two matrices, a better correlation (r2 = 0.9478) was obtained for mussels than for oysters (r2 = 0.8244). Additional studies are therefore needed in oysters to investigate the differences in the results obtained by both methods. Importantly, some samples with toxin levels around the legal limit gave inconsistent results using HPLC-based techniques, which could have a strong economic impact due to enforced harvest area closure. It should therefore be determined if all paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins can be quantified accurately by HPLC, and if the uncertainties of the method lead to doubts regarding regulatory limits.
Scolecenchelys borealis was first added to the Korean fish fauna based on one leptocephalus specimen (total length (TL) 59.2 mm) collected from Dokdo, in the East Sea. Recently, however, Scolecenchelys borealis has been treated as a junior synonym of Scolecenchelys aoki, necessitating review of the scientific name S. borealis. This study describes the morphological characteristics of S. aoki based on an adult specimen (TL 230.0 mm) collected from the sea south of Korea and compares its mitochondrial DNA 12S rRNA sequence with that of the S. borealis leptocephalus. The adult S. aoki is characterized by several morphological features: vertebral formula 59-55-135; preanal lateral pores 55; infraorbital pores two; teeth on upper jaw visible externally when the mouth is closed; the dorsal fin originates just behind the anus; both jaws and vomerine teeth are conical, arranged in two rows. An analysis of an 886-base paire sequence of the 12S rRNA showed that adult S. aoki was concordant with the S. borealis leptocephalus (sensu Ji et al., 2012), indicating that both are the same species.
The non-utilized biomass of the aquacultured seaweed Undaria pinnatifida, particularly the rhizoid, is an alternative source of arachidonic acid (AA). Of the five aquacultured kelps that were tested, U. pinnatifida yielded the highest amount of AA, which was isolated from the rhizoids. Its identity (C20:4 n-6) was confirmed from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry spectral data. The optimal conditions for post-harvest storage or pretreatment of the rhizoids in Provasoli`s enriched seawater for AA extraction were determined to be pH 7.8, 2% CO2-enriched air, 20umol m-2 s-1 light, and 10°C. Under these conditions, the AA content after 1 day of storage was enhanced by up to 127%. In the absence of light under ambient aeration, the AA content after 1 day of storage diminished to 90%. Rhizoids collected late in the season (April and May) contained the highest amounts of AA (approximately 2.5 mg/g tissue).