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          Kwun, Soon-Kuk The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers 2002 韓國農工學會誌 : 전원과 자원 Vol.44 No.3

          Despite the unfamiliar term "multifunctionality of agriculture" and the tremendous number of debates made over the past 10 years, multiple benefits from paddy rice farming in the Asian monsoon region are very significance due to the various inherent characteristics of paddy rice in this lesion. They were identified as rural vitalization, social security, nature and environmental preservations, and social and cultural functions. As studies estimating the monetary value of nature and environmental functions in Korea and Japan revealed, the economic value of multifunctionality from paddy rice farming reached to 70∼150% of total annual rice production cost of each country, and would have been even higher, had other functions been included. Therefore, interdisciplinary and international researches within the monsoon Asian countries are necessary to develop counter-measure logics against the Western dry land farming countries, emphasizing the efforts to disseminate worldwide the significance and recognition of the multifunctionality of paddy rice farming under the Asian monsoon climate.

        • KCI등재

          Development of A Single Reservoir Agricultural Drought Evaluation Model for Paddy

          정하우,최진용,박기욱,배승종,장민원,Chung, Ha-Woo,Choi, Jin-Yong,Park, Ki-Wook,Bae, Seung-Jong,Jang, Min-Won The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers 2004 한국농공학회논문집 Vol.46 No.3

          This study aimed to develop an agricultural drought assessment methodology for irrigated paddy field districts from a single reservoir. Agricultural drought was defined as the reservoir storage shortage state that cannot satisfy water requirement from the paddy fields. The suggested model, SRADEMP (a Single Reservoir Agricultural Drought Evaluation Model for Paddy), was composed of 4 submodels: PWBM (Paddy Water Balance Model), RWBM (Reservoir Water Balance Model), FA (Frequency and probability Analysis model), and DCI (Drought Classification and Indexing model). Two indices, PDF (Paddy Drought Frequency) and PDI (Paddy Drought Index) were also introduced to classify agricultural drought severity Both values were divided into 4 steps, i.e. normal, moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought. Each step of PDI was ranged from +4.2 to -1.39, from -1.39 to -3.33, from -3.33 to -4.0 and less than -4.0, respectively. SRADEMP was applied to Jangheung reservoir irrigation district, and the results showed good relationships between simulated results and the observed data including historical drought records showing that SRADEMP explains better the drought conditions in irrigated paddy districts than PDSI.

        • Disinfection and Reactivation of Microorganisms after UV Irradiation for Agricultural Water Reuse of Biofilter Effluent

          Jung, Kwang-Wook,Yoon, Chun-G.,Hwang, Ha-Sun,Ham, Jong-Hwa The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers 2003 韓國農工學會誌 : 전원과 자원 Vol.45 No.7

          A pilot study was performed to examine the feasibility of UV disinfection system and the reactivation of indicator microorganisms (TC, FC, E. coli) after UV irradiation for agricultural reuse of reclaimed water. Photoreactivation and dark repair enable UV-inactivated microorganisms to recover and may reduce the efficacy of UV inactivation, which might be drawbacks of the UV disinfection method. The effluent of biofilter for 16-unit apartment house was used as input to the UV disinfection system, and average SS and BOD concentration were 3.8 and 5.7 mg/L, respectively, and the mean level of total coliform was in the range of $1.0\times10^4$ MPN/100mL. UV disinfection was found to be effective and it reduced mean concentration of indicator microorganisms (total coliform, fecal coliform, and E. coli) to less than 100 MPN/100mL within 60s exposure using 17, 25, and 40W lamps. Two UV doses of 6 and 16 mW$\cdot$s/$\textrm{km}^2$ were applied and microorganisms reactivation was monitored under the dark, photoreactivating light, and solar irradiation. Microorganisms reactivation was observed in the UV dose of 6 mW$\cdot$s/$\textrm{km}^2$, and numbers increased up to 5% at the photoreactivating light and 1% at the dark. However, microorganisms were inactivated rather than reactivated at the solar radiation and numbers decreased to non-detectible level about below 2 MPN/100mL in 4 hours. In the case of 16 mW$\cdot$s/$\textrm{km}^2$, microorganism reactivation was not observed indicating that UV dose might affect the reactivation process such as photoreactivation and dark repair. Therefore, concerns associated with microorganism reactivation could be controlled by sufficient UV dose application. Agricultural reuse of reclaimed water might be even less concerned due to exposure to the solar irradiation that could further inactivate microorganisms. The pilot study result is encouraging, however, sanitary concern in water reuse is so critical that more comprehensive investigation is recommended.

        • KCI우수등재

          Event Mean Concentration of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from a Dairy and Crop Farming Complex Watershed

          Yoon, Kwang-Sik,Shirmohammadi, Adel,Choi, Woo-Jung,Jung, Jae-Woon The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers 2006 한국농공학회논문집 Vol.48 No.7

          Event mean concentration (EMC) of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) is primary information for non-point source pollution assessment of a watershed. The EMCs for various types of agriculture such as dairy and crop farming under different climate and geologic conditions are not fully investigated. A diary- and cropfarming complex agricultural watershed in Piedmont region in Maryland, USA has been monitored for 10 years as a section 319 national monitoring program of US EPA. Dairy manure was the main source of fertilizer for crop farming in this watershed. Observed mean concentrations of N and P for each event were analyzed. Distribution of EMCs for N and P showed a wide range of variations. Representative EMCs of T-N and $NO_{3}-N$ tended to be higher than those reported for other agricultural watersheds. This study confirmed that site-specific EMC information for various agricultural practices is required for better assessment of non-point source pollution using EMC method.

        • KCI우수등재

          Standardized Agricultural Land Use Classification Scheme at Various Spatial Resolution of Satellite Images

          Hong Seong Min,Jung In Kyun,Park Geun Ae,Kim Seong Joon The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers 2004 한국농공학회논문집 Vol.46 No.7

          This study is to present a standardized agricultural land use classification scheme at various spatial resolution (from 1 m to 30 m) of satellite images including Landsat TM, KOMPSAT-1 EOC, ASTER VNIR and IKONOS panchromatic (PAN) and multi-spectral (MS) images. The satellite images were interpreted especially for identifying agricultural land use, crop types, agricultural facilities and structures of 18 items. It was found that there is a threshold spatial resolution between 4 m and 6.6 m to identify the full items. Thus it is suggested that IKONOS fusion image (MS enhanced by PAN) is required to produce land use map for agricultural purpose.

        • KCI우수등재

          Development of An Optimal Routes Selection Model Considering Price Characteristics of Agricultural Products

          Suh, Kyo,Lee, Jeong-Jae,Huh, Yoo-Man,Kim, Han-Joong,Yi, Ho-Jae The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers 2004 한국농공학회논문집 Vol.46 No.1

          Transportation and logistics of agricultural products have been one of the major interests of many researches. Most of researches have been limited to presuming these as a first dimensional process or considering only economic value of agricultural products at each stage of logistics. However, the particular characteristics of agricultural products, such as quality change during transportation or extensively scattered origins, require examining these problems as a whole system. Network model has been adopted to represent nodes, which stand for spatial location of demand and supply of agricultural products, and communication between these nodes. Based on network theory and advanced marketing potential function, an optimal routes selection model is developed. The model employed network simplex method for routes optimization. The application of the model focused on transportation network organization to reflect different market prices for different locations and resulted in optimum routes and profit improvement of the applied agricultural product.

        • Effects of Physical Characteristics on a Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationship in Korean Reservoirs

          Hwang, Soon-Jin,Jeon, Ji-Hong,Ham, Jong-Hwa,Kim, Ho-Sub The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers 2002 韓國農工學會誌 : 전원과 자원 Vol.44 No.7

          This study was performed to evaluate effects of physical characteristics of both watershed and reservoir on nutrient-chlorophyll relationship in Korean reservoirs. Simple linear models were developed with published data in Korea including 415 reservoirs and 11 multi-purpose dams, and physico-chemical parameters of reservoirs and characteristics relationship of models were analyzed. Theoretical residence time in Korean reservoirs was strongly correlated with the ratio of TA/ST (drainage area + surface area / storage volume) in the logarithmic function. As a result of monthly nutrients-chlorophyll-a regression analysis, significant Chl-a-TP relationship appeared during May~July. The high Chl-a yields per total phosphorus appeared during this time (R$\^$2/=0.51, p<0.001, N= 1088). Chlorophyll-a demonstrated much stronger relationship with TP. than TN. Seasonal algal-nutrient coupling were closely related with N:P ratio in the reservoir water, and it was, in turn, dependent on the monsoon climatic condition (precipitation). Based on the results of regression analysis and high N:P ratio, a major limiting factor of algal growth appeared to be phosphorus during this time. Unlikely TA/ST ratio, DA/SA ratio (drainage area f surface area) was likely to influence directly on the nutrient-Chl-a relationship, indicating that if storage volume and inflowing water volume were the same, algal biomass could be developed more in reservoirs with large surface area. Thus, DA/SA ratio seemed to be an important factor to affect the development of algal biomass in Korean reservoirs. With low determination coefficient of TP-Chl-a relationship, our findings indicated not only nutrient (phosphorus) but also other physical factors, such as DA/SA ratio, may affect algal biomass development in Korean reservoirs, where actual residence time appears to be more closely related to reservoir surface area rather than storage volume.

        • KCI우수등재

          Engineering Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced High Performance Concrete

          Kim Young Ik,Sung Chan Yong The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers 2004 한국농공학회논문집 Vol.46 No.7

          In this paper, the flowability, strengths, impact resistance and sulfuric acid resistance of steel fiber reinforced high performance concrete (SFHPC) for the steel fiber content and fly ash and blast furnace slag as admixtures were presented. For evaluating flowability particularly, tests of slump flow, box-type passing ability and L-type filling ability were performed. The slump flow of SFHPC was some decreased with increase of the steel fiber content. At the box-type passing ability, the difference of box height of SFHPC is greatly increased with increasing the fiber content. The L-type filling ability of SFHPC was not excellent above $0.75\% of the steel fiber content. Also, the compressive strength of SFHPC was decreased with increase of the steel fiber content, but the flexural strength of SFHPC was much higher than that of the concrete without the steel fiber. At the impact resistance, drop number of SFHPC for reaching final fracture was increased with increase of the fiber content. Also, the drop number for reaching initial fracture of lmm was increased with increase of the fiber content. At the sulfuric acid resistance, 4-week weight change of SFHPC with the steel fiber was almost similarity that of HPC without the steel fiber and was in the range of 73.6 to 81.5.

        • KCI우수등재

          Engineering Properties of Permeable Polymer Concrete Using Bottom Ash and Recycled Coarse Aggregate

          Sung, Chan-Yong,Kim, Jong-Hyouk The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers 2006 한국농공학회논문집 Vol.48 No.7

          Permeable polymer concretes can be applied to roads, sidewalks, river embankment, drain pipes, conduits, retaining walls, yards, parking lots, plazas, interlocking blocks, etc. This study was to explore a possibility of using bottom ash as filler and recycled coarse aggregate of industrial by-products for permeable polymer concrete. The tests carried out at $20{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ and $60{\pm}2%$ relative humidity. At 7 days of curing, unit weight, void ratio, compressive and flexural strength and coefficient of permeability ranged between $1,652{\sim}1,828kgf/m^{3},\;15{\sim}29+%,\;18.2{\sim}24.5\;MPa,\;6.4{\sim}8.4\;MPa\;and\;6.8{\times}10^{-2}{\sim}1.7{\times}10^{-1}\;cm/s$, respectively. It was concluded that the bottom ash and recycled coarse .aggregate can be used in the permeable polymer concrete.

        • KCI우수등재

          Engineering Properties of Eco-Permeable Polymer Concretes Using Blast Furnace Slag Powder and Stone Dust

          Park Phil Woo,Sung Chan Yong The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers 2004 한국농공학회논문집 Vol.46 No.7

          Permeable polymer concrete can be applied to roads, sidewalks, river embankments, drain pipes, conduits, retaining walls, yards, parking lots, plazas, interlocking blocks, etc. This study was to explore a possibility of using blast furnace slag powder and stone dust of industrial by-products as fillers for Eco-permeable polymer concrete. Different mix proportions were tried to find an optimum mix proportion of the Eco­permeable polymer concrete. The tests were carried out at $20{\pm}1^{circ}C$ and $60{\pm}2\%$ relative humidity. At 7 days of curing, unit weight, coefficient of permeability, dynamic modulus of elasticity, compressive, flexural and splitting tensile strengths ranged between $1,821{\~}1,955 kg/m^{3}$, $0.056{\~}0.081\;cm/s$, $114{\times}0^{2}{\~}157{\times}10^{2}\;MPa,\;17.6{\~}24.7\;MPa,\;5.98{\~}7.94\;MPa\;and\;3.43{\~}4.70\;MPa$, respectively. It was concluded that the blast furnace slag powder and stone dust can be used in the Eco-permeable polymer concrete.

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