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<P><B>Purpose:</B></P><P>We aimed to assess whether nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (nsRP) is associated with improved recovery of urinary continence compared to non–nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (nnsRP) in patients with localized prostate cancer and preoperative erectile dysfunction.</P><P><B>Methods:</B></P><P>A total of 360 patients with organ-confined prostate cancer and an International Index of Erectile Function score of less than 17 were treated with nsRP or nnsRP in Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital. Patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy or had a history of prostate-related surgery were excluded. Recovery of urinary continence was assessed at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Postoperative recovery of continence was defined as zero pad usage. The association between nerve-sparing status and urinary continence was assessed by using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses after controlling for known predictive factors.</P><P><B>Results:</B></P><P>Urinary continence recovered in 279 patients (77.5%) within the mean follow-up period of 22.5 months (range, 6–123 months). Recovery of urinary continence was reported in 74.6% and 86.4% of patients after nnsRP and nsRP, respectively, at 12 months (P=0.022). All groups had comparable perioperative criteria and had no significant preoperative morbidities. Age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and nerve-sparing status were significantly associated with recovery of urinary continence on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.254; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.002–1.478; P=0.026) and nerve-sparing status (HR, 0.713; 95% CI, 0.548–0.929; P=0.012) were independently associated with recovery of urinary continence.</P><P><B>Conclusions:</B></P><P>nsRP, as compared to nnsRP, improves recovery rates of urinary incontinence and decreases surgical morbidity without compromising pathologic outcomes.</P>
<P><B>Purpose</B></P><P>Urinary incontinence (UI) is associated with nursing home admission, functional decline, and risk of death among community-dwelling older adults. Little information, however, is available on sex differences in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in older Korean adults exclusively living in rural areas. This study examined sex-related differences in LUTS, factors associated with UI in older adults living in rural areas, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in incontinent older adults.</P><P><B>Methods</B></P><P>This was a cross-sectional study in which face-to-face interviews were conducted at 15 rural community-health centres. A total of 323 older adults aged ≥65 years from rural areas of Korea participated. LUTS prevalence was evaluated and HRQoL was measured using the King’s Health Questionnaire. The chi-square test and t -test were used to examine sex differences in characteristics, LUTS, and HRQoL. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with UI.</P><P><B>Results</B></P><P>Nocturia was the most prevalent symptom, affecting 87% of men and 86% of women. Women (53%) had significantly more UI of any kind than did men (35%) (P=0.007). Urgency UI was the most frequent type of UI in men, whereas stress UI was the most frequent in women. Regarding HRQoL, men had significantly higher scores in the domains of sleep/energy disturbances (P=0.032) than did women, and women reported greater effects from the severity of incontinence (P=0.001) than did men. Arthritis was the only factor associated with UI in men (odds ratio [OR], 6.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–32.36). However, women with diabetes mellitus were less likely to have UI than those without (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.23–0.82).</P><P><B>Conclusions</B></P><P>LUTS were found to be highly prevalent in community-dwelling older Korean adults in rural areas. Interventions to improve sleep and to reduce UI severity are needed for incontinent men and women, respectively.</P>
<P><B>Purpose</B></P><P>To investigate the efficacy of total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) and free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA) for the estimation of prostate volume (PV) in pathologically-proven benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients.</P><P><B>Methods</B></P><P>From January 2010 to March 2013, 165 Korean men with a PSA less than 10 ng/mL who were diagnosed without prostate cancer by prostate biopsy were enrolled. Patients were classified into three age groups: ≤60, 61-70, and >70 years old. The results were organized to estimate and compare the ability of serum tPSA and fPSA to assess the PV.</P><P><B>Results</B></P><P>Enrolled patients had a median age of 63.5 years (44 to 80), a median tPSA of 5.72 ng/mL, a median fPSA of 0.98 ng/mL and a median PV of 53.68 mL, respectively. Among the associations between tPSA, fPSA, age, and PV, the highest correlation was verified between fPSA and PV (r=0.377, P<0.0001); the correlation coefficient between tPSA and PV was much lower (r=0.262, P<0.001). All stratified age cohorts showed the same findings. The ROC curves (for PV greater than 30, 40, and 50 mL) showed that fPSA (area under the curve [AUC]=0.781, 0.718, and 0.700) outperformed tPSA (AUC=0.657, 0.583, and 0.67) in its ability to predict clinically significant PV enlargement.</P><P><B>Conclusion</B></P><P>Both tPSA and fPSA significantly correlated with PV in Korean men, while the correlation efficiency between fPSA and PV was more powerful. fPSA may be a useful tool in making therapeutic decisions and follow-up management in BPH patients.</P>
<P>Recent developments in virtual, augmented, and mixed reality have introduced a considerable number of new devices into the consumer market. This momentum is also affecting the medical and health care sector. Although many of the theoretical and practical foundations of virtual reality (VR) were already researched and experienced in the 1980s, the vastly improved features of displays, sensors, interactivity, and computing power currently available in devices offer a new field of applications to the medical sector and also to urology in particular. The purpose of this review article is to review the extent to which VR technology has already influenced certain aspects of medicine, the applications that are currently in use in urology, and the future development trends that could be expected.</P>
<P><B>Purpose:</B></P><P>We aim to fabricate a thermoplastic poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) Lab-on-a-Chip device to perform continuous- flow polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) for rapid molecular detection of foodborne pathogen bacteria.</P><P><B>Methods:</B></P><P>A miniaturized plastic device was fabricated by utilizing PMMA substrates mediated by poly(dimethylsiloxane) interfacial coating, enabling bonding under mild conditions, and thus avoiding the deformation or collapse of microchannels. Surface characterizations were carried out and bond strength was measured. The feasibility of the Lab-on-a-Chip device for performing on-chip PCR utilizing a lab-made, portable dual heater was evaluated. The results were compared with those obtained using a commercially available thermal cycler.</P><P><B>Results:</B></P><P>A PMMA Lab-on-a-Chip device was designed and fabricated for conducting PCR using foodborne pathogens as sample targets. A robust bond was established between the PMMA substrates, which is essential for performing miniaturized PCR on plastic. The feasibility of on-chip PCR was evaluated using <I>Escherichia coli</I> O157:H7 and <I>Cronobacter condimenti</I>, two worldwide foodborne pathogens, and the target amplicons were successfully amplified within 25 minutes.</P><P><B>Conclusions:</B></P><P>In this study, we present a novel design of a low-cost and high-throughput thermoplastic PMMA Lab-on-a-Chip device for conducting microscale PCR, and we enable rapid molecular diagnoses of two important foodborne pathogens in minute resolution using this device. In this regard, the introduced highly portable system design has the potential to enable PCR investigations of many diseases quickly and accurately.</P>
<P><B>Purpose</B></P><P>Methylphenidate is the most widely used central nervous system stimulant in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, few studies have assessed its effects on voiding. Various doses of methylphenidate were investigated for their effects on cystometric parameters in conscious mice.</P><P><B>Methods</B></P><P>Ten male C57BL/6 mice, weighing between 20 and 23 g, were used in this study. To compare the acute drug responses before and after the oral medication was administered in the awake condition, we injected the solution through a catheter inserted into the stomach. Methylphenidate (1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg) in an injection volume of 0.05 mL was administered.</P><P><B>Results</B></P><P>Four mice that received high doses of methylphenidate (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) showed no voiding contraction, with urine leakage. Six mice that received a low dose of methylphenidate (1.25 mg/kg) showed typical micturition cycles before and after administration. The micturition pressure decreased and bladder capacity increased without an increased residual volume after administration.</P><P><B>Conclusions</B></P><P>Methylphenidate has differential, dose-dependent effects on the function of the lower urinary tract, due to the dependent relationship between the brain and lower urinary tract. Especially at higher doses, this drug may interfere with normal micturition. Therefore, more detailed clinical or experimental studies are warranted in the future.</P>
<P><B>Purpose</B></P><P>Many surgeons worry about postoperative voiding problems in patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and detrusor underactivity (DU). This study hypothesized that adjusting the tension after surgery would benefit patients with DU, and therefore researchers evaluated the outcomes and quality of life of women with SUI and DU who underwent the readjustable sling procedure (Remeex). </P><P><B>Methods</B></P><P>The medical records of 27 patients who were treated with the Remeex system for SUI and DU between 2007 and 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The incontinence visual analogue scale (I-VAS), incontinence quality of life questionnaire (I-QOL) and the Sandvik incontinence severity index (ISI) were used to evaluate the efficacy of the Remeex system both prior to surgery and at the last visit after surgery. The treatment was considered successful if there was no urine leakage based on the Sandvik questionnaire. </P><P><B>Results</B></P><P>The mean follow-up period was 38.0 months (range, 1–75 months), and the treatment success rate was 81.5%. Despite no urine leakage, 7 patients wanted the Remeex system to be removed due to persistent postoperative urinary retention within a year of surgery. One patient underwent a long-term adjustment under local anesthesia 6 years after the initial surgery. The I-VAS, ISI and all domains of the I-QOL scores improved significantly postoperatively and the maximum flow rate decreased significantly after the procedure. However, the postvoid residual did not change significantly. </P><P><B>Conclusions</B></P><P>The Remeex system provided a good cure rate and improved the quality of life of women with SUI and DU. Therefore, the Remeex system should be considered as a treatment option for female patients with concomitant SUI and DU.</P>
<P><B>Purpose</B></P><P>The aim of this study was to investigate urinary nerve growth factor (NGF) as a biomarker of treatment efficacy and recurrence in overactive bladder (OAB) patients.</P><P><B>Methods</B></P><P>We enrolled 189 OAB subjects who visited our outpatient clinic from February 2010 to February 2015. All subjects with OAB received antimuscarinic treatment. A 3-day voiding diary and questionnaire were collected from each patient. Urinary levels of NGF were evaluated at baseline, the beginning of antimuscarinic treatment, and the end of antimuscarinic treatment. Urinary NGF was normalized to urine creatinine (Cr). Between-group comparisons of baseline characteristics were made using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to predict responses to anticholinergic treatment and recurrence. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test with the Bonferroni correction was used for intragroup comparisons. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to analyze the utility of this biomarker.</P><P><B>Results</B></P><P>Urinary levels of NGF/Cr tended to decrease in patients who responded to treatment (n=62), but this was not significant (P=0.260). Urinary NGF levels were higher at baseline in patients who did not experience recurrence than in those who did (P=0.047). In those who did not experience recurrence (n=29), urinary NGF/Cr decreased at the end of treatment compared to baseline, and this reduction was maintained at 12 weeks after the end of treatment (P<0.05).</P><P><B>Conclusions</B></P><P>Urinary NGF is a potential biomarker for predicting the outcome of antimuscarinic treatment in OAB patients. This may provide useful information when deciding to stop antimuscarinic treatment in responders.</P>
<P><B>Purpose</B></P><P>This study aimed to investigate the surgical outcomes and safety of robotic sacrocolpopexy (RSC) in patients with uterine/vaginal vault prolapse. </P><P><B>Methods</B></P><P>Between January 2009 and June 2015, 16 women with apical prolapse underwent RSC. Pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) examination was performed, and treatment success was defined as the presence of grade 0 or I apical prolapse upon POP-Q examination at the final follow-up. Pelvic floor distress inventory-short form 20 (PFDI-SF 20) was administered at every follow-up. A treatment satisfaction questionnaire was administered by telephone to evaluate patient satisfaction with the operation. </P><P><B>Results</B></P><P>Median age was 65 years (interquartile range [IQR], 56–68 years), and follow-up duration was 25.3 months (IQR, 5.4–34.0 months). Thirteen women (81.3%) had ≥grade III apical prolapse. Operation time was 251 minutes (IQR, 236–288 minutes), and blood loss was 75 mL (IQR, 50–150 mL). Median hospital stay was 4 days (IQR, 3–5 days). At the final follow-up, treatment success was reported in all patients, who presented grade 0 (n=8, 57.1%) and grade I (n=6, 42.9%) apical prolapse. Dramatic improvements in PFDI-SF 20 scores were noted after RSC (from 39 to 4; P=0.001). Most patients (12 of 13) were satisfied with RSC. An intraoperative complication (sacral venous plexus injury) was reported in 1 patient, and there was no conversion to open surgery. Mesh erosion was not reported. </P><P><B>Conclusions</B></P><P>RSC is an efficient and safe surgical option for apical prolapse repair. Most patients were satisfied with RSC. Thus, RSC might be one of the best treatment options for apical prolapse in women.</P>
<P><B>Purpose</B></P><P>The pathophysiological role of detrusor overactivity (DO) in the bladder, which is commonly observed in various bladder diseases, is not well understood. DO appears in bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), and may continue even after subsequent deobstruction. DO therefore provides an excellent opportunity to observe molecular biological changes.</P><P><B>Methods</B></P><P>In this study, to understand the molecular effects of persistent DO after BOO induction and deobstruction, we performed awake cystometry on female Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 4 groups: a sham group, a BOO group, a deobstructed group with DO after BOO (DDO), and a deobstructed group without DO after BOO (non-DDO). Total RNA was extracted from the bladder samples, and gene expression profiles were compared between the sham and model groups.</P><P><B>Results</B></P><P>DO was observed in 5 of the 6 rats (83%) in the BOO group, and in 6 of the 13 rats (46%) in the deobstructed group. The non-DDO group showed a significantly greater residual volume than the DDO group. Through a clustering analysis of gene expression profiles, we identified 7,532 common upregulated and downregulated genes, the expression of which changed by more than 2 fold. In the BOO group, 898 upregulated and 2,911 downregulated genes were identified. The non-DDO group showed 3,472 upregulated and 4,025 downregulated genes, whereas in the DDO group, only 145 and 72 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively.</P><P><B>Conclusions</B></P><P>Abnormal function and gene expression profiles in bladders after BOO were normalized in the BOO rats with DO after deobstruction, whereas in those without DO, abnormal function persisted and the gene expression profile became more abnormal. DO may play a protective role against the stress to the bladder induced by BOO and deobstruction as a form of adaptive neuroplasticity.</P>