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Acupuncture has been practiced in China for over 2000 years to treat a variety of diseases based on the “meridian theory,” as described in the “Yellow Emperor’s Classics of Inter- nal Medicine.” Deqi refers to the excitation of qi or vital energy inside meridians by acupuncture needle stimulation. Patients often experience multidimensional and intense needling sensations such as numbness, soreness, distention, heaviness, dull pain, and sharp pain during acupuncture stimulation. Deqi is considered as an important parameter in the process of achieving therapeutic effectiveness in acupuncture treatment. Under- standing this phenomenon from neurophysiological aspects is important for clinical prac- tice and enables practitioners to perform quantitative acupuncture evaluation to obtain a reliable prognosis of acupuncture treatment. This review paper describes our current knowledge and understanding of Deqi from a physiological aspect.
Acupuncture has been practiced in China for over 2000 years to treat a variety of diseases based on the “meridian theory” as described in the Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine. To this date, the meridian theory continues to be an important guide for tradi- tional Chinese medicine practitioners to diagnose and treat patients. Although the merid- ians have not been identified reliably as actual anatomical structures, they appear to serve as a road map to identify the location of various acupoints. Research has shown that acupoints overlie major neuronal bundles. The meridians extensively studied in the car- diovascular realm are the pericardial meridians (P) 5, 6, which overlie the deep median nerve. Meridians involved with gastrointestinal processes are (St) 36, 37, which overlie the deep peroneal nerve. Acupuncture needles, either manipulated manually or stimu- lated using a low current and frequency, have been documented to be a neurophysiolog- ical basis for modulating the activity of peripheral and central neural pathways. This review describes our current understanding of acupoints and meridians from a physiolog-ical aspect.