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        Intangible heritage in the United States: a history of separate initiatives

        William Chapman 국립민속박물관 2019 International Journal of Intangible Heritage Vol.14 No.-

        This paper examines the history of the United States’forays into the recognition and protection of elementsof intangible heritage. It traces the beginnings of USinitiatives to programmes of the Library of Congress inthe late 1920s through several Smithsonian InstitutionProgrammes from the 1930s on, notably the SmithsonianFolklife Festival, begun in 1967 and more recently, theNEA National Heritage Fellowship Programmes. Itfurther examines the work of the National Park Serviceand Tribal Preservation Programmes, as well as themore recent Pacific Island Programmes. A final sectionexamines regional and citywide efforts to identify andconserve aspects of intangible heritage. Although the UShas officially withdrawn from participation in the workof UNESCO it is consoling to recognise the importantstrides the US has made in the effort to promote andprotect traditional modes of cultural expression and thediversity of US approaches, which is in fact in line with theobjectives of the organisation’s international Conventionfor the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage.

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        Unicompartmental vs. segmental bicompartmental vs. total knee replacement: comparison of clinical outcomes

        Al-Dadah Oday,Hawes Georgina,Chapman-Sheath Philip J.,Tice John William,Barrett David S. 대한슬관절학회 2020 대한슬관절학회지 Vol.32 No.-

        Purpose: Combined medial tibiofemoral and symptomatic patellofemoral osteoarthritis is not amenable to unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR). Total knee replacement (TKR) is an invasive option in younger adults with high functional demands. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of patients who have undergone UKR, bicompartmental knee replacement (BKR) and TKR up to 2 years post-operatively. Materials and methods: This prospective study comprised 133 subjects including 30 patients in the medial UKR group, 53 patients in the BKR group (combined medial UKR with patellofemoral joint replacement) and 50 patients in the TKR group. All subjects were evaluated using the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Patients in each group were assessed using both scoring systems pre-operatively and 6 months, 1 year and 2 years post-operatively. Results: Significant improvement of OKS was found at 6 months compared to baseline for UKR (22.7 to 38.1, p = 0.046), BKR (22.6 to 36.8, p < 0.001) and TKR (16.6 to 34.5, p < 0.001). Significant improvement was also found for the WOMAC sub-scores for all three groups during this time period. After 6 months, there was no further statistically significant improvement in either outcome score in any of the groups up to the 2-year follow-up results. There was no significant difference in either outcome score post-operatively between the three groups. Conclusion: The magnitude of clinical improvement following knee replacement is greatest at 6 months; thereafter, only modest improvements continue to occur. This study also found no significant differences of outcomes at 2 years after surgery among UKR, BKR and TKR. BKR is a good alternative option for combined symptomatic medial and patellofemoral arthritis of the knee.

      • KCI등재

        Unicompartmental vs. segmental bicompartmental vs. total knee replacement: comparison of clinical outcomes

        ( Oday Al-dadah ),( Georgina Hawes ),( Philip J. Chapman-sheath ),( John William Tice ),( David S. Barrett ) 대한슬관절학회 2020 대한슬관절학회지 Vol.32 No.-

        Purpose: Combined medial tibiofemoral and symptomatic patellofemoral osteoarthritis is not amenable to unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR). Total knee replacement (TKR) is an invasive option in younger adults with high functional demands. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of patients who have undergone UKR, bicompartmental knee replacement (BKR) and TKR up to 2 years post-operatively. Materials and methods: This prospective study comprised 133 subjects including 30 patients in the medial UKR group, 53 patients in the BKR group (combined medial UKR with patellofemoral joint replacement) and 50 patients in the TKR group. All subjects were evaluated using the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Patients in each group were assessed using both scoring systems pre-operatively and 6 months, 1 year and 2 years post-operatively. Results: Significant improvement of OKS was found at 6 months compared to baseline for UKR (22.7 to 38.1, p = 0.046), BKR (22.6 to 36.8, p < 0.001) and TKR (16.6 to 34.5, p < 0.001). Significant improvement was also found for the WOMAC sub-scores for all three groups during this time period. After 6 months, there was no further statistically significant improvement in either outcome score in any of the groups up to the 2-year follow-up results. There was no significant difference in either outcome score post-operatively between the three groups. Conclusion: The magnitude of clinical improvement following knee replacement is greatest at 6 months; thereafter, only modest improvements continue to occur. This study also found no significant differences of outcomes at 2 years after surgery among UKR, BKR and TKR. BKR is a good alternative option for combined symptomatic medial and patellofemoral arthritis of the knee.

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