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Recently, biomass conversion from agricultural wastes to carbon-rich materials such as biochar has been recognized as a promising option to maintain or increase soil productivity, reduce nutrient losses, and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from the agro-ecosystem. This experiment was conducted to select an optimum conditions for enhancing the NH<sub>4</sub>-N adsorption capacity of activated rice hull biochar. For deciding the proper molality of KOH for enhancing its porosity, biochars treated with different molality of KOH(0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8) were carbonized at 600℃ for the reactor. The maximum adsorption capacity was 1.464 mg g<sup>-1</sup>, and an optimum molarity was selected to be 6M KOH. For the effect of adsorption capacity to different carbonized temperatures, 6M KOH treated biochar was carbonized at 600℃ and 800℃ under the pyrolysis system. The result has shown that the highest adsorption capacity was 1.76 mg g<sup>-1</sup> in the activated rice hull biochar treated with 6M KOH at 600℃ of pyrolysis temperature, while its non-treated biochar was 1.17 mg g<sup>-1</sup>. The adsorption rate in the activated rice hull biochar treated with 6M KOH at 600℃ was increased at 62.18% compared to that of the control. The activated rice hull biochar adsorption of NH<sub>4</sub>-N was well suited for the Langmuir model because it was observed that dimensionless constant (RL) was 0.97 and 0.66 at 600℃ and 800℃ of pyrolysis temperatures, respectively. The maximum adsorption amount(qm) and the bond strength constants(b) were 0.092 mg g<sup>-1</sup>, 0.001 mg L<sup>-1</sup>, respectively, for the activated rice hull biochar treated with 6M KOH at 600℃ of pyrolysis. Optimum condition of activated rice hull biochar was 6M KOH at 600℃ of pyrolysis temperature.
Objective of this study was conducted to calculate the adsorption and removal rates of PO<sub>4</sub>-P using palm activated biochar to obtain basic data on the manufacturing process of biochar pellet complete fertilizer. For adsorption experiment of PO<sub>4</sub>-P to palm activated biochar, loading amount of palm activated biochar was varied from 0.4 to 6 g L<sup>-1</sup> with 30 mg L<sup>-1</sup> of PO<sub>4</sub>-P solution. The removal rate of PO<sub>4</sub>-P of palm activated biochar gradually increased from 0.99% to 56.5% as the input amount of palm activated biochar increased, indicating a linear. The adsorption amount of PO<sub>4</sub>-P per unit mass increased from 0.24 to 0.57 mg g<sup>-1</sup> in the range of 0.4 to 6 g L<sup>-1</sup>. Its adsorption characteristic was investigated with application of Langmuir isotherm. The largest Adsorption amountand removal rates of PO<sub>4</sub>-P were 0.57 mg g<sup>-1</sup> and 56.6%, respectively. The sorption of PO<sub>4</sub>-P to palm activated biochar was fitted well by a Langmuir model. The largest adsorption amount of PO<sub>4</sub>-P and binding strength constant were estimated to be 9.36 mg g<sup>-1</sup>, and 0.005 L mg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. It was indicated that the sorption of PO<sub>4</sub>-P to palm activated biochar is fitted very well to Langmuire equation, because dimensionless constant of Langmuir isotherm lie within 0<R<sub>L</sub><1.