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This research is not only to investigate impacts of the type and location of both shopping and leisure facilities on travel mode choice. But the research is also to identify variables differently influencing travel mode choice by travel purpose. For them, the research uses multinomial logit models with the data surveyed in the seoul city in 2007. The findings resulting from these analyses suggest three policy implications for shopping and leisure travels. First, travellers tends to take more non-automobile modes for their travel purposes when parking is more difficult in either their origination or destination, while residents takes more public transit when its accessibility is more convenient in their origination than destination. Additionally, comparing the impact powers on travel mode choice between parking availability and transit accessibility, the former is more important than the latter in order to decrease the automobile dependence. Second, people tends to walk to get to a Big Discount Mart as much as they drive, while they drive much more their own cars for it, compared to the modes of public transit. It implies that people drive less their cars for it when the facility is located near their residence. Finally, travellers tend to take bus as almost same as drive their own cars to attain their purposes when they reside in the areas where rail transit accessibility is poor unlike central and sub-central business districts in Seoul. It gives us an implication that bus should be competitive to car in the areas.
This study has been aimed to identify the effects of compact-city development at the living area of neighborhood level on transportation policy measures in the capital region. For the purpose of it, the study established the regression analysis model of compact-city planning elements to modal split and inner-travel ratio. The planning elements are defined as Density, Diversity, Design and Accessibility. The analysis results demonstrate that compact-city planning should be applied to the capital region at the neighborhood level to reduce car-oriented travel pattern. In addition to it, the results suggest that policy measures of both modal split and self-sufficiency might not be simultaneously accomplished by compact-city planning. For example, both population density and rail accessibility have a positive impact on reducing car split while they have a negative impact on self-sufficiency and inner-travel ratio. It means that compact-city planning at the neighborhood level need to be applied to achieve either of them, not both.
There have been a few researches related to the changes and characteristics of commuting networks among urban cities in the Korean Capital Region through specifically investigating cities' functional connection patterns. In that, until now, most of studies had pointed the Seoul-centered spatial interdependency in the region, the study is expected to draw policy implications on future metropolitan growth management by analyzing the changing patterns of spatial interdependency among other cities as well as between Seoul and those cities. We conducted analyses on the temporal pattern of spatially connecting networks among the metropolitan cities(Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi-do's 31 cities and counties) by using JDR(Job Dependency Ratio Index), JOR(Job Occupancy Ratio Index), and Ⅵ(Volume Index) for the O/D matrixes of attending and commuting population from 1990 to 2005. The study identified three characteristics on changing spatial interdependency among cities in the region. First, the scale of the Seoul metropolitan area has expanded in the region, even if the centripetal force of the Seoul city to other cities has decreased since 1990. Second, other cities has increasingly played an influential role in the region because of close functional connection among cities as well as increase in the number of central cities forming a small-size metro area. Third, there are prominent central cities of small-size metro areas while their number and spatial scope has increased since. the central cities includes traditional independent cities in the early 1990s, such cities covering new towns as Koyang in the late 1990s, and newly growing cities such as Yongin and Icheon in the early 2000s.
막대한 재원과 오랜 기간이 소요되는 철도사업의 수요예측 정확도가 낮아 비효율성을 초래한다는 지적이 지속적으로 제기되고 있다. 그러나 이와 관련된 연구는 많지 않은 실정으로, 수요예측의 정확도에 영향을 미치는 다양한 요인을 파악하고 분석하는 것이 필요하다. 특히 하나의 노선이라 할지라도 각 역별로 수요예측 정확도는 큰 차이가 발생하게 되는데, 역별 수요예측의 정확도를 높여 전체 노선의 정확도를 향상시키는 것이 중요하다. 본 연구에서는 서울시에 위치한 142개 지하철역을 대상으로 미시적 역세권 특성이 수요예측의 정확도에 미치는 영향을 파악하였다. 이를 위해 먼저 역세권 특성을 개발밀도, 토지이용의 다양성, 사업체수, 종사자수, 토지이용 목적 등의 토지이용 특성과 버스노선수, 환승/비환승역의 유무 등의 대중교통 특성으로 구분하고 GIS 등의 자료를 활용하여 파악하였다. 또한 지역별 수요예측의 정확도를 위험도라는 지표를 활용하여 산정하였다. 그 결과 개발밀도가 높을수록, 토지이용의 다양성이 높을수록, 사업체수 및 종사자수가 많을수록 수요예측의 정확도가 높아 과다 예측된 경우가 적은 것으로 나타났다. 고정적으로 통행이 발생하는 주거중심의 역이 상대적으로 정확도가 높은 것으로 나타났다. 또한 지하철과 연계되는 버스노선수가 많을수록, 연계성을 갖는 단거리 버스노선수가 많을수록 예측이 정확했으며, 환승역의 경우 비환승역에 비해 오히려 정확도가 낮게 나타났는데, 이는 자료의 한계로 인한 결과라 판단된다. 더불어 예측수요가 많을수록 정확도는 오히려 감소하는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구결과를 통해 철도사업 수요예측의 정확도는 역별로 큰 차이를 보이며, 이는 역세권의 특성과 관련이 있음을 보여주고 있으며, 향후 철도사업 수요예측 정확도 향상을 위한 기초자료로 활용될 수 있을 것이다. 특히 TOD의 기대효과와 유사하게 개발밀도를 높이고 토지이용을 다양화하며, 연계교통수단의 서비스수준을 향상시킴으로써 수요예측의 정확도를 높일 수 있음을 보여주는 결과라 할 수 있다. Recently, there have been constant criticisms over the low accuracy of the rail demand forecast. The accurate demand forecast is important as the rail project requires copious budget and time. However, the study on the accuracy of the rail demand forecast has not attracted researchers, whereas it is necessary to understand the factors which affect the accuracy. Especially, different station tends to show different accuracy in the same rail project, it is also necessary to study on this characteristic. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect on the microscopic characteristics of the station impact area to the accuracy of demand forecast. 142 subway stations in Seoul are analyzed to draw 10 characteristic indexes - density, land use mix, number of companies, number of labors, purpose of land use, number of bus lines, number of short-range bus lines, average number of bus lines of bus stop, w or w/o transfer - with categorizing the station impact area to the land use and the public transit. In addition, estimated demand is also analyzed. The accuracy of demand forecast in each station is used to estimate the ratio of risk As a result, firstly, in terms of the land use, the demand forecast is more accurate with the higher density, land use mix, number of companies and labors which decreases the overestimation. At the same time, the station in the residential area with steady demand shows the higher accuracy. Secondly, in terms with the transit system, the demand forecast is more accurate when there are more bus lines connected to the subway station, on the other hand, the larger demand leads to the lower accuracy. Besides, the transit station shows lower accuracy than the non-transit station, which is supposed to be due to the limitation of the data. With the results above, it is discovered that the accuracy of rail demand forecast shows great differences between stations, which seems to be related with the characteristics of each station. Particularly, similar to the anticipated effect of TOD, an area with high density, mixed land use and feeder transit will improve the accuracy of rail demand forecast.
This study is aimed at identifying the association of commuting behavior with obesity for workers in the Korea Capital Region. The study surveyed total 1,285 commuters whose their major affairs are deskwork-oriented so that we obtained their obesity status on Body Mass Index as well as their commuting behavior. The measures of the latter was comprised of a main commuting mode, in-vehicle time, out-vehicle time, transit transfer in order to identify the amount of physical activity obtained through commuting behavior. In order to analysis the causal relationship between commuting and obesity, this study designed the structural equation model, path analysis and the program was amos 7.0. The results indicate prominent causality. Especially out-vehicle time influence on reducing their BMI, and the other way in-vehicle time influence on increasing their BMI.
본 연구에서는 국내에서 바람직한 TOD(대중교통지향형 도시개발)를 유도하기 위하여 TOD 계획요소에 포함되는 다양한 변수들이 대중교통 이용수요에 미치는 영향을 비교·분석하였다. 이에 대한 실증분석을 위해서 TOD의 개념과 유사한 서울시의 역세권을 사례지역으로 선정하였으며, TOD 계획요소 중 토지이용과 대중교통 특성에 대한 영향을 각각 분석하였다. TOD 계획요소 내에 포함되어 있는 다양한 변수들을 종합적으로 고려하기 위하여 구조방정식 모형을 정립하고 토지이용과 대중교통 특성 각각에 대한 효과분석모형을 구축하였다. 모형 정립 시에는 잠재변수를 포함시켜 모형의 적합성을 높이고자 하였으며, 종속변수는 총수요, 버스수요, 철도수요, 그리고 환승수요의 네 가지를 각각 고려하였다. 모형의 정산결과 대부분 각 모형들에 포함된 독립변수들의 요인부하량의 부호와 통계값이 대부분 유의한 것으로 판단되었다. 대중교통 특성의 경우 역세권 내에서는 버스 관련 변수들도 철도수요에 상당한 영향을 미치고 있어 역세권의 기능을 활성화시키기 위해서는 환승연계기능으로서의 버스활성화가 필요한 것으로 판단되었으며, 토지이용특성의 경우 용도별로 고밀 개발의 영향이 다르게 나타나고, 고밀 개발과 함께 복합적 토지이용도 대중교통수요에 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타나 향후 역세권 개발 시에는 기능별 유형에 따른 다양한 개발정책이 필요하다는 연구결과가 도출되었다. The main purpose of this research is analyzing the actual effect of Transit Oriented Development(TOD) planning elements and establishing an appropriate way for the implementation of TOD in Korea. This research considers two characteristics of TOD planning elements, public transit supply and land use. As a case study area, this research selected developments of rail station areas in Seoul because many of rail station areas have already been developed on the basis of the concept of TOD. In addition, the author could utilize the data from Seoul bus-cards, which are used in Seoul Metropolitan area for riding buses and subways, in order to investigate the characteristics of transportation demands, which was included as a dependent variable in this research. This research sets up and effects analysis model using a structural equation modeling in order to comprehensively consider the variables for the diverse planning elements for TOD introduction in a realistic manner. In the structural equation modeling, this research effort sets up an effect analysis model for each planning element through dividing and integrating potential variables. The effect analysis model for each planning element can be divided into two effect analysis models according to the characteristics of public transit supply and land use. In each model, total demand, bus demand, rail demand are included as dependent variables. The main result of the model reveals that both land use plan and public transit supply plan should be included in the implementation of TOD and it is more desirable to balance the use of a high-density development approach using an additional incentive of floor space index with the use of integrated land use than to induce high-density development only.
This study is not only aimed to determine priorities of area-wide transportation policies in the five metropolitan areas through analytic hierarchy process(AHP) methodology. But it also attains to demonstrate that area-wide policy items could be differentiated by each metropolitan area. For it, the study surveyed almost 200 transportation experts for a questionnaire with 7-point pariwise comparison tables of policy items with three levels which were drawn out by 7 experts through brainstorming. The analysis results, in general, demonstrate that area-wide transportation policies need to be more focused on expanding transit-oriented facilities as well as enforcing travel demand management policy, especially, through the strong land-use and transportation coordination. In addition to it, they also suggest that area-wide transportation policy should be differentiated with consideration of the characteristics and transportation conditions facing in each metropolitan area. On the other hand, the study proposes that the AHP methodology could be a useful analysis method to derive priority items of diverse metropolitan transportation policies.
This research aims at analyzing the actual effect of transit oriented developments (TOD), and finding implications from the analysis in order to establish an appropriate way for the implementation of TOD, which has been emerging as a new paradigm for urban development. To this end, this research classified the planning elements into two categories according to characteristics of public transit supply and land use. This research effort selected developments of rail station areas in Seoul, Korea as a test-bed because many of rail station areas have already been developed on the basis of the concept of TOD. In addition, the author could utilize the data from Seoul bus-cards, which are used in Seoul Metropolitan area for riding buses and subways, in order to investigate the characteristics of transportation demands, which was included as a dependent variable in this research. This research established an effect analysis model using a structural equation modeling in order to comprehensively consider the variables for the diverse planning elements for TOD introduction in a realistic manner. In the structural equation modeling, this research set up an effect analysis model between the planning elements through dividing and integrating potential variables. The result of model calibration indicated that all statistics reside within significant level, the signs of factor loadings turned out reasonable. Based on results from the statistical analysis, this research effort found significant results by each planning element.