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This study is concerned with the production of carbon fiber reinforced carbon(C/C) with polyaromatic mesophase as matrix precursor. The main problem in using the polyaromatic mesophase as the matrix precursor is the high viscosity, which may limit the complete impregnation of the fiber preform in the vacuum. To solve the main problems, two dimensional carbon fiber fabrics were infiltrated with mesophase pitch and isotropic pitch in the hot isostatic press(HIP) with 970 atm at 700℃. After the HIP treatment, C/C composites were characterized by density, porosity, optical microscopy and XRD to monitor the influence of high pressure and temperature.
Duodenal perforations caused by biliary prostheses are uncommon, but they are potentially life threatening and require immediate treatment. Here we describe an unusual case of duodenal perforation induced by a plastic biliary stent. It masqueraded as a case of cholecystitis and combined systemic upset with a localized peritonitis and fever. Primary endoscopic closure by hemoclips was difficult due to the position of the lateral wall and the complexity of aligning the perforation with the endoscope. To approximate the perforated hole and adherent hemoclips, glue injection and sprayings were successfully performed under cap-fitted endoscopy. The patient recovered without additional complications. 치료적 ERCP 시술에서 금속 또는 플라스틱 담도 스텐트에 의한 십이지장 천공은 비교적 드문 합병증이나 매우 치명적인 결과를 초래할 수 있는 합병증으로 즉각적인 진단과 수술적 치료를 요한다. 저자들은 담도 스텐트 삽입 후 초기에 담낭염으로 오인되어 경피경간 담낭배액술을 시행하였으나, 플라스틱 담도 스텐트 이탈에 의한 십이지장 천공과 이로 인한 국소적 복막염으로 최종 진단된 72세 남자에서 내시경 치료를 시도하였다. 일차적인 내시경 봉합술을 위해 내시경 선단에 투명캡을 장착 후 지혈클립을 이용해 봉합하였으나 천공 위치로 인해 완전한 봉합이 이루어지지 않아 일차 봉합한 점막에 fibrin glue의 주입과 도포를 시행해 성공적으로 치료한 증례를 보고하고자 한다.
Purpose: This study investigated the changes in body composition and serum lipid composition in obese women that were caused by a 12‐week circuit exercise regime including both field and aquatic activities. Methods: Subjects comprised a total of 36 women who had a BMI of more than 25 kg/m2. The simple obesity group (n=17)had no current or past record of medical complications, whereas the group with complications (n=19) also suffered from hypertension and/or diabetes. The circuit exercise program consisted of 12 weeks of 60%HRmax exercise sessions, five days a week. Results: While changes in every variable of body composition were significant, there was no statistically significant difference in the changes in serum lipid composition variables. With the exception of BMI, the correlation between the simple/complicated groups and exercising was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: These findings suggest that while a complex circuit weight exercise program that includes aquatic exercises significantly and positively alters obese patients’ body composition it does not create statistically significant changes in their serum lipid composition. It can still be concluded, however, that increasing the duration of the exercise program would be effective to influence this. Moreover, personalized exercise programs that fit the needs of the individual participants seem necessary, given that the effect of exercise on body composition and serum lipid composition was greater in patients with simple obesity than in those with complications.
Purposes of this study were to find antecedences of consumer knowledge. In previous search, consumer knowledge was measured only subject knowledge and objective knowledge. But in this study, consumer knowledge was measured new method; declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge. Based on pervious studies, I select product usage experience, information seeking experience, stored product class information, involvement, and need for cognition as antecedence of consumer knowledge. To find difference response between products, I use cosmetics and VTR as stimulus product. The subject of this study was the 347 university students in Teagu area, and it consist 127 male students and 221 female students. First, I compare the scale's mean difference by gender. The result show that female's means are higher than male's means at cosmetics. However male's means are higher than female's means at VTR. I compute correlation coefficient between objective knowledge and subjective knowledge. Female sub group's correlation coefficient at cosmetics are higher than male sub group's correlations and vice versa at VCR. Based on this result, I split group as male group and female group, then regression analysis were performed to determine antecedence of consumer knowledge. Results of regression analysis show that explain portion of product usage experience, information seeking experience, stored product class information, involvement, and need for cognition are statistically significance. Based on the result of this study, some suggestion of further research was also discussed.