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Purpose: Central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular system (CVS) side effects of anticholinergic agents used to treat overactive bladder (OAB) are underreported. Hence, this review aimed to focus on the mechanisms of CNS and CVS side effects of anticholinergic drugs used in OAB treatment, which may help urologists in planning the rationale for OAB treatment. Materials and Methods: PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the key words “OAB,” “anticholinergics,” “muscarinic receptor selectivity,” “blood-brain barrier,” “CNS,” and “CVS side effects.” Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. Results: CNS and CVS side effects, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, the metabolism of these drugs, and the clinical implications for their use in OAB are presented and discussed in this review. Conclusions: Trospium, 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine, darifenacin, and solifenacin seem to have favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties with regard to CNS side effects, whereas the pharmacodynamic features of darifenacin, solifenacin, and oxybutynin appear to have an advantage over the other anticholinergic agents (tolterodine, fesoterodine, propiverine, and trospium) with regard to CVS side effects. To determine the real-life situation, head-to-head studies focusing especially on CNS and CVS side effects of OAB anticholinergic agents are urgently needed.
The aim of this review is to update the indications, contraindications, technique, complications, and the tissue engineering approaches of augmentation cystoplasty (AC) in patients with neurogenic bladder. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the keywords "augmentation cystoplasty," "neurogenic bladder," and "bladder augmentation." Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. The update review of of the indications, contraindications, technique, outcome, complications, and tissue engineering approaches of AC in patients with neurogenic bladder is presented. Although some important progress has been made in tissue engineering AC, conventional AC still has an important role in the surgical treatment of refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction.
Since their introduction in 1996, tension-free midurethral slings (MUS) have been proven to have long-term efficacy and safety. They are considered the gold standard treatment of female stress urinary incontinence, especially in cases that are associated with urethral hypermobility. However, they are not free of complications and, although rare, some of these complications can be challenging for both patients and physicians. Some complications occur intraoperatively, whereas others appear in the early or late postoperative period. There is less controversy in the diagnosis and treatment of complications such as vaginal extrusion or urinary system erosion, whereas de novo voiding problems are at best not completely understood. Voiding dysfunction after MUS placement may vary in a wide range from urinary frequency or urgency to retention and is usually attributed to the obstructive or irritative effect of the sling. However, present urodynamic criteria for the diagnosis of female infravesical obstruction are not satisfactory, and the best management policy for de novo voiding dysfunction remains controversial. In the majority of cases, the diagnosis of obstruction leading to a urethral release surgery depends on a combination of several clinical findings. The timing of urethral release surgery varies depending on the preferences of the surgeon, and the outcome of this surgery is not always predictable. The purpose of this review was to assess the diagnosis and management of the immediate, short-term, and long-term complications of MUS in light of the current literature in an attempt to determine the best management policy.
Purpose: Ischemic priapism, a compartment syndrome, requires urgent treatment in order to nourish the corpora cavernosa. As the first step, aspiration of blood and irrigation of the cavernosal bodies is performed to prevent fibrotic activity and secure erectile capability. During aspiration, there are risks of cardiovascular side effects of adrenergic agonists. We aimed to evaluate a transient distal penile corporoglanular shunt technique in place of aspiration and irrigation techniques for treatment of early ischemic priapism. Materials and Methods: A transient distal penile shunt was applied to 15 patients with early ischemic priapism between January 2011 and May 2012. Priapism duration, history,causes, pain, and any prior management of priapism were assessed in all patients. A complete blood count and penile Doppler ultrasonography were performed, which showed attenuated blood flow in the cavernosal artery. A sterile closed system blood collection set, which has two needles and tubing, was used for the transient distal penile shunt. Results: Ten of 15 patients with early ischemic priapism were successfully treated with this transient shunt technique. No additional procedures were needed after the resolution of rigidity in the 10 successfully treated patients. Conclusions: The transient nature of this technique is an advantage over aspiration and irrigation in the treatment of early ischemic priapism. Our results indicate that the technique can be offered for patients with an ischemic priapism episode of no more than 7 hours.