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          Development of an ISSR-Derived SCAR Marker in Korean Ginseng Cultivars (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer)

          Lee, Jei-Wan,Kim, Young-Chang,Jo, Ick-Hyun,Seo, A-Yeon,Lee, Jeong-Hoon,Kim, Ok-Tae,Hyun, Dong-Yun,Cha, Seon-Woo,Bang, Kyong-Hwan,Cho, Joon-Hyeong The Korean Society of Ginseng 2011 Journal of Ginseng Research Vol.35 No.1

          Recently, new ginseng cultivars having superior agricultural traits have been developed in Korea. For newly developed plant cultivars, the identification of distinctiveness is very important factors not only in plant cultivar management but also in breeding programs. Thus, eighty-five inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers were applied to detect polymorphisms among six major Korean ginseng cultivars and two foreign ginsengs. A total of 197 polymorphic bands with an average 5.8 polymorphic bands and 2.9 banding patterns per assay unit across six Korean ginseng cultivars and foreign ginsengs from 236 amplified ISSR loci with an average 6.9 loci per assay unit were generated by 34 out of 85 ISSR primers. Three species of Panax ginseng including the Korean ginseng cultivars, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng, could be readily discriminated using most tested primers. UBC-821, UBC-868, and UBC-878 generated polymorphic bands among the six Korean ginseng cultivars, and could distinguish them from foreign ginsengs. Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker system was introduced in order to increase the reproducibility of the polymorphism. One SCAR marker, PgI821C650, was successfully converted from the randomly amplified polymorphism by UBC-821. It showed the expected dominant polymorphism among ginseng samples. In addition, the specific polymorphism for Sunwon was generated by treating Taq I restriction enzyme to polymerase chain reaction products of PgI821C650. These results will serve as useful DNA markers for identification of Korean ginseng, especially Sunwon cultivar, seed management, and molecular breeding program supplemented with marker-assisted selection.


          Antioxidant Action of Ginseng : An hypothesis

          Lee, D.W.,Sohn, H.O.,Lim, H.B.,Lee, Y.G.,Aprikian, A.G.,Aprikian, G.V. The Korean Society of Ginseng 1995 Journal of Ginseng Research Vol.19 No.1

          Antioxidant effect of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) was investigated in rats. Long-term administration of ginseng water extract protected the activity of liver cytosotic SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase from being significantly decreased with advancing age (p<0.05). It was more effective toward glutathione peroxidase than other antioxidant enzymes. However, the level of sulfhydryl compounds and its related enzymes such as glutathione reductase and glutathione-5-transferase was not significantly changed by the administration of ginseng. Liver microsomal formation of reactive oxygen species such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide did not show a significant difference between two groups although it was slightly decreased with age, but lipid peroxidizability of microsomal membrane induced by a prooxidant was slightly lower in ginseng-treated rats. Interestingly, antioxidant capacity of plasma from ginseng treated rats on autooxidation of ok-brain homogenates was much higher than that of normal ones. However, resistance of RBC membrane against oxidative stress showed a similar tendency. The content of serum TBA reactive substances lowered consistently in the rats treated with r ginseng at all corresponding age and a significant difference between two groups was found at 24 months of age (p<0.05). Ginseng extract protected lipid peroxidation in brain and liver. This protection was more effective in the stressed rats imposed by immobilization than normal ones. In conclusion, ginseng water extract protected the age related deterioration of major antioxidant enzymes, and this effect was more striking with increasing duration of treatment. This comprehensive antioxidant action of ginseng seems to be bra certain action of ginseng other than a direct antioxidant action, which might be a long term normalizing effect through the harmony of various components.


          Effects of Korean Red Ginseng on Cognitive and Motor Function: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial

          Yeo, Hye-Bin,Yoon, Ho-Kyoung,Lee, Heon-Jeong,Kang, Seung-Gul,Jung, Ki-Young,Kim, Leen The Korean Society of Ginseng 2012 Journal of Ginseng Research Vol.36 No.2

          Ginseng has a long history of use for health enhancement, and there is some evidence from animal studies that it has a beneficial effect on cognitive performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Korean red ginseng on cognitive performance in humans. A total of 15 healthy young males with no psychiatric or cognitive problems were selected based on an interview with a board-certified psychiatrist. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive a daily dose of 4,500 mg red ginseng or placebo for a 2-week trial. There were 8 subjects in the red ginseng group and 7 subjects in the placebo group. All of the subjects were analyzed with the Vienna test system and a P300 event-related potential (ERP) test. There were no significant differences in the Vienna test system scores between the red ginseng group and the placebo group. In the event-related potential test, the C3 latency of the red ginseng group tended to decrease during the study period (p=0.005). After 2 wk, significant decreases were observed in the P300 latencies at Cz (p=0.008), C3 (p=0.005), C4 (p=0.002), and C mean (p=0.003) in the red ginseng group. Our results suggest that the decreased latency in ERP is associated with improved cognitive function. Further studies with a higher dosage of ginseng, a larger sample size, and a longer follow-up period are necessary to confirm the clinical efficacy of Korean red ginseng.


          Korean Red Ginseng: Qualitative and Quantitative Benefits on Helicobacter pylori Infection

          Chung, Jun-Won,Kim, Yoon-Jae,Lee, So-Jung,Hahm, Ki-Baik The Korean Society of Ginseng 2010 Journal of Ginseng Research Vol.34 No.2

          Ginseng has been reported to reduce the risk of cancer in diverse organs, including the lip, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, lung, liver, pancreas, ovary, colon, rectum, and stomach, as demonstrated in clinical and epidemiological studies. studies, base on which findings, Panax ginseng has been classified as a "non-organ-specific cancer preventive." However, the recent keen interest in traditional medicinal herbs has been frequently questioned, about exact mode of action and the use of panaceic compounds has been a prime issue discussed in terms of complementary and alternative medicine. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the mitigating effects of Korean red ginseng on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated atrophic changes and carcinogenesis; However, evidence-based medicine, consisting of large-scale or well designed clinical studies, is still warranted whether Korean red ginseng is to be recognized as an essential therapeutic strategy regarding a "H. pylori-associated gastric cancer preventive." Specifically, comprehensive clinical trials of Korean red ginseng are needed to demonstrate that mucosal regeneration in patients with atrophic gastritis is feasible using Korean red ginseng supplements after the eradication of H. pylori infection. Ginseng is a good example of a natural herb and its ubiquitous properties may include the reduction or delay of inflammation carcinogenesis. Korean red ginseng contains ample amounts of active ginsenosides and we have demonstrated their effects in in vitro and in vivo studies with positive outcomes. In this review, the quantitative and qualitative benefits of Korean red ginseng in the treatment of H. pylori infection are described.

        • The Global Ginseng Market and Korean Ginseng

          Baeg, In-Ho The Korean Society of Ginseng 2022 인삼문화 Vol.4 No.-

          Ginseng and ginseng products are distributed in approximately 190 countries around the world. The size of the ginseng market varies by country and there are no accurate statistics on production and distribution amounts per country. Therefore, it is difficult to make predictions about the global ginseng market. Governments and ginseng trading companies are in need of comprehensive data that shows the current status of the ginseng market to help them establish effective import, export, and sales and marketing policies. To addressthis need, this study examines the approximate size of the world ginseng market based on estimates of recent quantities of ginseng distributed in specific country as well as production by major ginseng producing countries. In 2018, global ginseng production was about 86,223 tons based on fresh ginseng. China produced 50,164 tons, South Korea 23,265 tons, Canada 11,367 tons, the US 1,285 tons, Japan 30 tons, and other countries a combined 112 tons. The value of global ginseng production is estimated to be approximately $5,900 million, with $2,870 million (48.6%) in China, $2,489 million (42.2%) in South Korea, $478 million (8.1%) in Canada, $54 million (0.9%) in the USA, $4 million (0.1%) in Japan, and $5 million (0.1%) in other countries. The value of ginseng products consumed for the last five yearsin South Korea was $1,162 million in 2014, $1,280 million in 2015, $1,548 million in 2016, $1,638 million in 2017, and $1,762 million in 2018, showing that the market has been increasing in recent years. In particular, the Korea Ginseng Corporation (KGC), the biggest global ginseng company in South Korea, recorded sales of $1,207 million in 2018. This represents about 69% of the South Korean ginseng market, and about 20% of global production. Since interest in alternative medicine and health food among consumers is increasing globally, the market for ginseng is expected to expand into the future.


          Characterization of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer): History, preparation method, and chemical composition

          Lee, Sang Myung,Bae, Bong-Seok,Park, Hee-Weon,Ahn, Nam-Geun,Cho, Byung-Gu,Cho, Yong-Lae,Kwak, Yi-Seong The Korean Society of Ginseng 2015 Journal of Ginseng Research Vol.39 No.4

          It has been reported that Korean Red Ginseng has been manufactured for 1,123 y as described in the GoRyeoDoGyeong record. The Korean Red Ginseng manufactured by the traditional preparation method has its own chemical component characteristics. The ginsenoside content of the red ginseng is shown as Rg1: 3.3 mg/g, Re: 2.0 mg/g, Rb1: 5.8 mg/g, Rc:1.7 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.4 mg/g, respectively. It is known that Korean ginseng generally consists of the main root and the lateral or fine roots at a ratio of about 75:25. Therefore, the red ginseng extract is prepared by using this same ratio of the main root and lateral or fine roots and processed by the historical traditional medicine prescription. The red ginseng extract is prepared through a water extraction ($90^{\circ}C$ for 14-16 h) and concentration process (until its final concentration is 70-73 Brix at $50-60^{\circ}C$). The ginsenoside contents of the red ginseng extract are shown as Rg1: 1.3 mg/g, Re: 1.3 mg/g, Rb1: 6.4 mg/g, Rc:2.5 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.9 mg/g, respectively. Arginine-fructose-glucose (AFG) is a specific amino-sugar that can be produced by chemical reaction of the process when the fresh ginseng is converted to red ginseng. The content of AFG is 1.0-1.5% in red ginseng. Acidic polysaccharide, which has been known as an immune activator, is at levels of 4.5-7.5% in red ginseng. Therefore, we recommended that the chemical profiles of Korean Red Ginseng made through the defined traditional method should be well preserved and it has had its own chemical characteristics since its traditional development.


          Serum IgE Immune Response After the Exposure to Korean Ginseng

          Lee, Jong-Wha,Park, Kyeong-Mee,Park, Ki-Hyun The Korean Society of Ginseng 1994 Journal of Ginseng Research Vol.18 No.2

          To assess a polential relationship of Korean ginseng to allergic reactions, the effect of Korean ginseng on the total IgE in serum as an allergologic parameter was investigated in humans. Serum total IgE levels were measured in 8 subjects who have been taking ginseng for more than 5 years, 4 subjects of weak constitution, 10 newly hired workers in the ginseng processing industry and 7 normal subjects unexposed to Korean ginseng as control group. Blood samples were taken before and after the exposure to Korean ginseng. Total IgE levels after the exposure to Korean ginseng were not significantly different from those before the exposure within each group. And also, the IgE levels of control subjects were not significantly different compared with those of other groups. These results suggest that the exposure to Korean ginseng dose not affect significantly the IgE immune response of the subjects.


          Molecular Identification of Korean Mountain Ginseng Using an Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS)

          In, Jun-Gyo,Kim, Min-Kyeoung,Lee, Ok-Ran,Kim, Yu-Jin,Lee, Beom-Soo,Kim, Se-Young,Kwon, Woo-Seang,Yang, Deok-Chun The Korean Society of Ginseng 2010 Journal of Ginseng Research Vol.34 No.1

          Expensive herbs such as ginseng are always a possible target for fraudulent labeling. New mountain ginseng strains have occasionally been found deep within mountain areas and commercially traded at exorbitant prices. However, until now, no scientific basis has existed to distinguish such ginseng from commonly cultivated ginseng species other than by virtue of being found within deep mountain areas. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer has been shown to be an appropriate method for the identification of the most popular species (Panax ginseng) in the Panax ginseng genus. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been identified between three newly found mountain ginseng (KGD4, KGD5, and KW1) and already established Panax species. Specific PCR primers were designed from this SNP site within the sequence data and used to detect the mountain ginseng strains via multiplex PCR. The established multiplex-PCR method for the simultaneous detection of newly found mountain ginseng strains, Korean ginseng, and foreign ginseng in a single reaction was determined to be effective. This study is the first report of scientific discrimination of "mountain ginsengs" and describes an effective method of identification for fraud prevention and for uncovering the possible presence of other, cheaper ginseng species on the market.


          Molecular differentiation of Russian wild ginseng using mitochondrial nad7 intron 3 region

          Li, Guisheng,Cui, Yan,Wang, Hongtao,Kwon, Woo-Saeng,Yang, Deok-Chun The Korean Society of Ginseng 2017 Journal of Ginseng Research Vol.41 No.3

          Background: Cultivated ginseng is often introduced as a substitute and adulterant of Russian wild ginseng due to its lower cost or misidentification caused by similarity in appearance with wild ginseng. The aim of this study is to develop a simple and reliable method to differentiate Russian wild ginseng from cultivated ginseng. Methods: The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 7 (nad7) intron 3 regions of Russian wild ginseng and Chinese cultivated ginseng were analyzed. Based on the multiple sequence alignment result, a specific primer for Russian wild ginseng was designed by introducing additional mismatch and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for identification of wild ginseng. Real-time allele-specific PCR with endpoint analysis was used for validation of the developed Russian wild ginseng single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker. Results: An SNP site specific to Russian wild ginseng was exploited by multiple alignments of mitochondrial nad7 intron 3 regions of different ginseng samples. With the SNP-based specific primer, Russian wild ginseng was successfully discriminated from Chinese and Korean cultivated ginseng samples by allele-specific PCR. The reliability and specificity of the SNP marker was validated by checking 20 individuals of Russian wild ginseng samples with real-time allele-specific PCR assay. Conclusion: An effective DNA method for molecular discrimination of Russian wild ginseng from Chinese and Korean cultivated ginseng was developed. The established real-time allele-specific PCR was simple and reliable, and the present method should be a crucial complement of chemical analysis for authentication of Russian wild ginseng.

        • KCI등재

          Insilico profiling of microRNAs in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer)

          Mathiyalagan, Ramya,Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy,Natarajan, Sathishkumar,Kim, Yeon Ju,Sun, Myung Suk,Kim, Se Young,Kim, Yu-Jin,Yang, Deok Chun The Korean Society of Ginseng 2013 Journal of Ginseng Research Vol.37 No.2

          MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of recently discovered non-coding small RNA molecules, on average approximately 21 nucleotides in length, which underlie numerous important biological roles in gene regulation in various organisms. The miRNA database (release 18) has 18,226 miRNAs, which have been deposited from different species. Although miRNAs have been identified and validated in many plant species, no studies have been reported on discovering miRNAs in Panax ginseng Meyer, which is a traditionally known medicinal plant in oriental medicine, also known as Korean ginseng. It has triterpene ginseng saponins called ginsenosides, which are responsible for its various pharmacological activities. Predicting conserved miRNAs by homology-based analysis with available expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences can be powerful, if the species lacks whole genome sequence information. In this study by using the EST based computational approach, 69 conserved miRNAs belonging to 44 miRNA families were identified in Korean ginseng. The digital gene expression patterns of predicted conserved miRNAs were analyzed by deep sequencing using small RNA sequences of flower buds, leaves, and lateral roots. We have found that many of the identified miRNAs showed tissue specific expressions. Using the insilico method, 346 potential targets were identified for the predicted 69 conserved miRNAs by searching the ginseng EST database, and the predicted targets were mainly involved in secondary metabolic processes, responses to biotic and abiotic stress, and transcription regulator activities, as well as a variety of other metabolic processes.

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