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This special topic is to examine the pluralistic approaches in a comparative study on Eastern and Western literature/culture. As Susan Bassnett says comparative literature involves the study of texts across cultures, that it is interdisciplinary and that it is concerned with patterns of connection in literatures across both time and space. For studying on a comparative study on Eastern and Western literature, we need to use the pluralistic approaches to study them. These mean employing not any one method in interpreting a work of art but every method which might prove efficient. And we must understand following contents in the process of study: filiation and affiliation in Edward W. Said's travelling theory, the thought of East and West, Zen Buddhism in Western society, Octavio Paz's Orient, the meaning of ‘no' in Eastern religion, the establishment of an authentic text in textual criticism, concept of reality, context framework which mean the circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement or idea about ‘author, reader, language, text, reading.' Those are the new ideas and concepts of Eastern and Western literature today. Accordingly we may find out new themes, approaches, and so on in the process of study of Eastern and Western literature by synthesizing the above contents.
Studies on comparative literature in the west of the 19th century occurred in the politico-cultural matrix in which European sense of cultural superiority to non-Europe nations politically increases. In facing this ethos J. W. von Goethe raised the necessity of world literature (Weltliteratur) in order to get over a hidebound nationalism. Goethe's vision expedited the study for comparative literature and widened the extension of literature. In the 21st century globalization and localization are simultaneously in progress in the name of so-called ‘glocalization'. In the age of glocalization what is unavoidability of literature and should be? Some said that literary critics and scholars should be a comparativist. For this reason, comparative studies as a new academic methodology has been suggested. In response to this tendency I intend to suggest some methodological alternatives for the study of comparative literature in East-West. Firstly, not seeing eastern literature with western eyes and vice versa but seeing one's literature with each one's eyes is necessary in the age of glocalization. In this case the gap between East and West can be widened. Thus it is necessary to apply the fusion of horizon (Horizontverschmelzung) that H.-G. Gadamer insisted for the way of hermeneutic conformity in ‘argumentum e contrario' to the study of comparative literature in East-West. Secondly, Korean distinguished Buddhist monk-scholar Wonhyo's idea of One Mind (一心) as a basis of hermeneutic fusion of horizon can be applied to the study of comparative literature. Thirdly, Dilthey's hermeneutics of life as a structural nexus of lived experience, expression and understanding has two aspects: the diachronic and the synchronic. According to Dilthey, life itself is prior to conceptual thought and knowledge. Life is experienced as a dynamic/productive nexus (Wirkungszusammenhang). Dilthey's triadic nexus of life can be applied to the study of comparative literature as a basis of hermeneutic confirmity. Lastly, it is necessary to explore religious canons in East and West which supply literary imagination and thoughts. Even though the ways of expression are different human mental structure and desire for happiness of life, eternity, essence of beauty and so on are similar in East and West.
The Saddharma-puṇḍarīika-samādhi, or Dharma-flower absorption, was passed down to the Tiantai School as its dharma-transmitting practice method after Chinese Ch'an master Huisi (慧思) of the Chen (陳) Dynasty first attained enlightenment and then was followed by Great master Tiantai (天台). To the Korean peninsula, Hyeon-gwang (玄光) of Baekje introduced this samādhi practice for the first time and by the Goryeo period it flourished greatly. Especially between the close of Goryeo and the opening of Joseon, Korean Cheontae (Tiantai) was divided into Cheontae sojajong (天台疏字宗) and Cheontae beopsajong (天台法事宗), among which the latter is said to have cultivated the Dharma-flower samādhi exclusively. As for the temple of such practice, Baengnyeonsa is well-known as the practice community (結社) for this sam dhi. It is, however, little known what the Saddharma-puṇḍarīika-samādhi at that time was like. It was only speculated that it had been performed in the same way as Chinese Tiantai's Repentance Ritual of the Ṣaddharma-puṇḍarīika-samādhi 『法華三昧懺儀』. Recently though, among the texts discovered from inside the Vairocana statue of Girimsa Temple were the last fascicle of Commentary on Repentance Ritual of the Ṣaddharma-puṇḍarīika-samādhi 『法華三昧懺助宣講儀』 compiled in the 4th year of Goryeo King U's reign (1378) and the first fascicle of Method of the Lotus Sutra Samādhi 『妙法蓮華經三昧懺法』 compiled by Cheontae School's propagator (傳敎僧) San-geung (山亘), both of which reveal a fact of the Dharma-flower sam dhi practice at that time. Examining both the texts, yebuldan (禮佛壇), or the Buddhist service, was performed accordingly to the newly composed method based upon the contents of the Lotus Sutra; jakgwan (作觀), or performing the meditation, was done contemplating the sutra contents; chamhoi, or repentance, was conducted unifying into one the repentance of the six sense organs. In particular, the ceremonial process was well organized so that they could cultivate sam dhi while reciting the Lotus Sutra after dividing its contents into 12 parts. Such a practice method was unique in Goryeo as it was shown different from its counterparts ie., the Repentance Ritual of the Ṣaddharma-puṇḍarīika-samādhi of China and the Repentance Method of the Lotus Sutra 『法華懺法』 of Japan.
In this study, an outlet is discussed for Cheyong festival to find a way out of the present distressing circumstances it encounters, through the disputes arising centered on the character of ‘Cheyonghui' and the Cheyonghui Festival in Ulsan. The culture of Cheyong that contains the more stronger feasibility of commercializing for sightseeing than any other inherited in Korea is presently confronted with the difficulty of “abandonment” even locally, far from the Korea's leading global culture brand, having been run against the stubborn regionalism and religious dogma. The present situation of the local autonomy that interrupts even up to the culture administration, attempting to succeed to the cultural legacy of the nation, by agitating in the colors of wild regionalism biased with religious prejudice should be, therefore, watched for. Owing to the insufficiency of appreciating the origin of Cheyonghui and Cheyong culture, Cheyong festival has been swirled over the consumptive debates as mush as the separation of the world music festival and the abandonment of Cheyong festival reared up. Now is the time that more comprehensive discussions are more needed to make it possible to materialize the tradition of Cheyong culture, while livening it, than the identity of Cheyong is repeated in debate and the regional hegemony is argued. Only the prudential festival administration that is well-considered to prepare developing contents and introducing regional features, accomodations, transportation, and up to the guidance to tourist spots for various public can revive Cheyong festival surely as ‘universal contents.'
This study aims to analyze ‘JuChe-Aesthetics' of North Korea with the comparison to Eastern European aesthetics, which can be said to form philosophical and aesthetic basis of Literature and Art Theory of North Korean Realism. This analysis also proceeds to compare the central categories in Literature and Art Theory of North Korean Realism with those of Eastern European's. Furthermore, the Research on JuChe-Aesthetics, a unique aesthetics of North Korea, would give the theoretical ground to explain aesthetic features of Literature and Art Theory of North Korean Realism and, eventually, help to understand theoretical differences in Ju-Che-Realism, a socialistic realism peculiar to North Korea from European, especially Eastern European, socialistic realism.