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Notion of culture is very extensive in our life. But culture is common notion of society's domination and an organized capacity, which can also improve 'quality of life'. After the 18th century, European artists discovered that art has human sprite in it with great possibility that can demonstrate: known as an autonomous world. Culture of course can be divided into big two groups: western and eastern. Speaking of western culture, European Union (EU)'s Maastricht contract, article 151 (former article 128) states "European cultural plan of operation policy" which has already started and plan to continue with a cultural development policy 'Cultural 2000' which will be a homework for 21st century. In such a busy world today, EU's attempt of making cultural policy as part of law is not only epochal but also creative thought that can be an important issue and that is why this study has touched on the issue. Although EU has made one of the biggest step of unifying European currencies, looking at cultural aspect, each EU country still maintain and allow their history and own culture. EU nations has view their future with "Kaleidoscope", "Support for culture cooperation Projects in the EU", "Ariene cultural policy" and "Raphael", which was aimed to protect cultural inherits. All the above teach us a lesson in a sense of 'union' or 'community' that Asian cultural policy still has a lot to work on and teach us 'what we should do'. EU's cultural policy not only allow diversity and characteristic of its cultural but also shows each other's cooperation and benefit that they share as a community ; European cultural as united. Our world facing America's globalization, this is one of European's action from preventing America's standardized cultural. Only from respecting variety of cultural will lead us to globalization. EU's idea of "jointly owned" cultural ; protecting and exploiting identifying cultural of each European nation will help facing devolvement of new decade we are facing. Speaking quality of life here, people are able to think more philosophically and think freely. Such a people's mentality will makes better quality of life that improves quality of society teach people to keep and respect their culture's identity. One of the leading countries for EU's policy is Germany. Their economic technique comes from potential power of cultural. German's potential power played an important role and showed underlying strength on German unification. One of the remarkable issues is ; although Germany still face and will generate problems in the future due to cultural differences caused from long separation, the problem is building foundation of completing united Germany. After the unification Germany faced more of an economic problem trying to balance up the living standard between eastern and western that cultural was not a priority issue but now, culture is a given task for 21st century. Just in time for 21st century, Germany is making very active, progressive and being systematical in a given task to protect and restore cultural assert. However, Germany's cultural and economy is already reciprocal proportional with each other. Because of such a relationship, many corporations are participating a lot of cultural events and these corporations' position is no longer 'supporting relationship' rater concrete 'accompanying relationship'. From the aspect above, Korea must pay attention to the progress that western and eastern Germany has made to overcome and bring separated cultural back as one. Germany and Korea will face different issues and problem but a conjunction here is an assignment of unifying divided cultural as one. Also the fact that the divided cultural both present capitalism and socialism. This is the reason why Korea should pay attention to what has happen to Germany. Further research and studies are also required before big steps. As a final step, we should know appropriate and inappropriate situation from the studies for our nation and lastly take German's mistake as a lesson. Many countries today are worrying that one might loose one's culture identity inside one's own history. This foreshadows us that cultural dimension is a given task for 21st century. The society's interest on 'quality of life' has reached higher point that people discuss more about it at some point. This can also be an explanation ; now that our society has reached its satisfactory point materialistically, people's thirst over mental affluent circumstance is very naturalistic rational part of our mind. In following sentence it should be closed the thesis: Der Geist ist staerker als die blosse Macht. Darauf koennen wir auch in zukunft vertrauen. -Barthold c. Witte-
I have now come to the end of a survey of the design as to human life. In accordance with this broader conception of design, more space has been given to the teachings this province. Because we are now able to see more clearly the advanced, artistic and revolutionary trends of our times. It is an appropriate time to ask ourselves a number of questions. What is the meaning of design? Do you learn anything valuable form the study of design? what is the fate of: our own civilization of design? Is there a way, destined to escape, form decay, disintegration and succumbing to temptation? And the other vocabulary ; ideology, thought, concinnity, nature, liberty, temps(time), espace(space) and methodology. And now, I am only standing on a strange stage, vague thought on design. But the time has long sinced passed when modern man could think of the world as consisting of the art and the design. The purpose of this work is to present a compact survey of man's struggle for civilization from ancient times to the present. No major area or country of this globe has been omitled. In the field of design, the entire span of human history can be devided in two sorts, a age of recreation and a age of creation. The development to the provicne of design has been depended on both the former and the latter, but especially it has been created in great force. In short, our recent civilization will be existing created by the working of our modern designing, and by the acting of it's works.
In any culture and times, art and religion have had a very close relationship. They have also helped each other for the developments. There is a religion in the background of great religious art works. Religious Objects which hold real implication of faith also artistically express their holiness. We can observe them through many remains of religious culture. Although religious cultural remains have different manufactured ages and styles, they still keep their beauty even after many ages and social changes. Here we can learn that the beauty, usage and imlication of religious objects are interrelated in them. Rather the appreciation of religious objects will be much greater in this period of rapid social changes and various spiritual demands of complicated society. In this present time, we have more advanced scientific technology, better industrial materials, sufficient informations, financial supports, social appreciation for arts, increased artistic senses of artists and much more passion of arts than any other times. From all of these, I am confident that contemporary artists are able to provide Holy Objects to the beautiful liturgical spaces of the Catholic Church in which the Holy Objects will satisfy the faith and spiritual demands of believers in our time. First will be "What should we make?" This question will require the authentic definition about the designs of Holy Objects in liturgical spaces of the Catholic Church. Second will be "How can we make Holy Objects for the liturgical spaces?" in other words, we need more study for liturgical design. Designers must properly understand proper direction of the design and definition of the Holy Objects. Designers should also seek the proper design of the Holy Objects for the liturgical function and use of celebrant as well as participants. There are many different kinds of Holy Objects in the liturgical spaces of the Catholic Church for their use according to the liturgy. The Eucharistic Celebration(Mass) is the centre of all liturgies in the Catholic Church. It consists of "Liturgy of Word" and "Liturgy of Eucharist". In this research, I would like to focus only on the Holy Objects pertinent to the Eucharist, such as chalice and paten, ciborium and ciboria, tabernacle and monstrance. I will inquire the progressive development of their historical origin. Then I will discuss the materials and designs of those Holy Objects(including the Tabernacles I made). For making Holy Objects, the design of Holy Obejects should not simply express artistic or aesthetic aspect, but rather provide liturgical meanings of them. The function of Holy Objects in liturgy must help our faith and spiritual expression vitalize from them. Thus, Holy Objects or Holy Paintings should maintain their role of visual effectiveness in liturgy. This is the role of Holy Arts in general. Excessively characteristic Holy Arts which fail to create proper liturgical meanings, will disturb our worship. It will internally distinguish between Religious Arts and Holy Arts. Religious Arts define that a theme of the arts is religious. But every religious theme of the arts can not be Holy Arts. Holy Arts should be defined in the context of liturgical purpose of liturgical elevation. This is the main point to design Holy Objects or to make Holy Arts for liturgies in the Catholic Church. We should realize that our modern Korean Church still depends upon imports of Holy Arts from overseas. We must not copy foreign Holy Arts any more. Today, in Korea, there are many well trained artists. They are ready to work with sufficient materials, informations, requirements and even finances. In order to manufacture Holy Objects expressed by Korean traditional cultural spirituality, we need professional institution, proper studio, vocational school or college to establish. I may suggest that it is the best way to establish `Holy Arts Department' or 'Holy Objects Department' in Catholic University, so that Korean religious arts can root down in Korean society and Church.
The aim of this is to investigate the fitness between pattern and ligament which is the model of female physical feature in producing goods. For this investigation, the ligament with the same size but manufactured differently in features was chosen to grasp the characteristics and what degree of physical feature can be reflected in accordance with the design techniques of round pattern by putting on the two kinds of torso pattern, currently recognized excellent for physical fitness. The result is as follows; Ligament Ⅰ has the Oriental appearance in flat silhouette, and Ligament Ⅱ has the Occidental appearance generally with solider sense and long in length, and so even though two kinds of ligaments are similar in size factor, they made a remarkable difference in form factor. Design techniques of Pattern A couldn't be said as the pattern in which physical feature was considered in that if the measurements of height and bust girth have the same size, all were made in the same pattern, irrelevantly to the physical features. As Pattern B is made by the measurement figure of each body part, the physical characteristic of each body part show higher reflection rate than those of Pattern A. It is confirmed that Pattern A is more suitable one to the physical form like Ligament Ⅰ in the evaluation of torso pattern for the two kinds of study object, and Pattern B is more suitable to Ligament Ⅱ.s