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This experiment was carried out to develop a new technique by identifying XX-bearing embryos prior to implantation by immunological method. H-Y antiserum was prepared in inbred Wistar female rats by repeated immunization with spleen cells from males of the same strain. The reactivity of H-Y antibody was confirmed by culturing mouse embryos in the medium containing H-Y antiserum and complement obtained from the guinea pig. The optimal condition for the activity of H-Y antibody was also investigated by culturing embryos under the various conditions of equilibration times, complement concentrations and various media. The results obtained in this experiment are as follows: When the embryos were cultured in the medium of H-Y antiserum and complement which was given the equilibration time of less than 30 minutes in CO₂ incubator, the lysis-rate of embryo was 89.3%. The embryo lysis-rates in the equilibration time of 1-1.5, 3-3.5, or 24-26 hours were 48.1, 47.7 and 48.2%, respectively. When the concentration rate of complement to H-Y antiserum varied from 0.25 - 4.0, the lysis-rate of embryo was 43.2 to 52.7%. The concentration rate of complement did not influence the lysis-rate of embryos. The meda of D-PBS + 0.3% BSA, D-PBS + 20% FCS, Ham's F-10 + 0.3% BSA and Ham's F-10 + 20% FCS showed the embryo lysis-rate of 46.4, 57.4, 49.3 and 49.1%, respectively. The culture media used in this experiment did not show any significant difference in the embryo lysis-rate. After the embryos were cultured to the late blastocyst in the media of D-PBS + NGPS + H-Y antiserum or D-PBS + NGPS + normal female rat serum the normally developed embryos were selected and transferred to the pseudo pregnant recipients. The percentages of their female offspring were 82.3%(14/17) in H-Y antiserum treatment and 53.6%(15/28) in normal serum treatment and showed a significant difference between the two treatments(p $lt;0.001).
This experiment was carried out to develop a new technique by immunological method. H-Y antiserum was prepared in inbred Wistar female rats by repeated immunization with new-born testis supernatant and spleen cells from males of the same strain. The activity of H-Y antibody in antiserum was tested by cytotoxicity and biological tests. The results obtained in this experiment. are as follows: In the sperm cytotoxicity test it was showed about 70% of the sperm were dead in the 1/2 to 1/8 dilution of H-Y antiserum immunized with spleen cells, new-born testis or the compound of both antigens. As the dilution increased, the death rate of sperm decreased markedly. H-Y antibody absorbed with female-rat spleen cells showed higher death-rate of sperm than that with male-rat spleen cells. The normal female-rat serum showed the sperm death-rate of 14.6 to 27.9% irrespective of the dilution rate. The difference between the two sperm death-rates was significant. The embryos cultured in the medium of complement and H-Y antiserum immunized with male-rat spleen, new-born testis or the compound of both antigens showed the lysis-rates of 48.9, 50.0 and 46.3% respectively. There was no significant difference among each lysis-rate. But the lysis-rate of the embryos cultured in the medium of complement and normal female rat serum was 5.1% and it was markedly different from the above lysis rates(p $lt;0.001).
To understand the effect of Y<SUB>2</SUB>BaCuO<SUB>5</SUB> (Y211)/YBa<SUB>2</SUB>Cu<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7-y</SUB> (Y123) interfaces on the oxygen diffusion in single grain YBa<SUB>2</SUB>Cu<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7-y</SUB> superconductors, single grain Y123 superconductors with 0.05 and 0.3moles of Y<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>3</SUB> additions were fabricated by a top-seeded melt growth (TSMG) process. Y123 compacts with Y<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>3</SUB> additions were subjected to melt growth heating cycles with a cooling rate of 1<SUP>o</SUP>C/h through a peritectic temperature (1015<SUP>o</SUP>C) and then annealed at 450<SUP>o</SUP>C for 200h in flowing oxygen. The superconducting temperature (T<SUB>c</SUB>) and critical current density (J<SUB>c</SUB>) were estimated for the three different regions (top surface (s), intermediate (i) and center (c)) of samples. The amount of Y211/Y123 interface area in single grain Y123 superconductors was successfully controlled by Y<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>3</SUB> additions. The T<SUB>c</SUB> values of s regions were higher than those of i and c regions, which indicates the presence of more oxygen at the sample surfaces. In addition, the T<SUB>c</SUB> values of i and c regions of the Y123 sample with 0.3mole Y<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>3</SUB> addition were higher than those of the same regions of the Y123 sample with 0.05mole Y<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>3</SUB> addition due to the promoted oxygen diffusion through Y211/Y123 interfaces and other related defects. In spite of the promoted oxygen diffusion by Y<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>3</SUB> addition, the large T<SUB>c</SUB> difference among the regions still existed, which suggests sluggish oxygen diffusion into single Y123 grains.
The purpose of this study was to detect association between genetic variation and economic trait in the porcine heart type fatty acid-binding protein gene as a candidate gene for the traits related with growth and meat quality in pigs. The H-FABP is a 15-kDa protein expressed in several tissues with high demand for fat metabolism such as cardiac and skeletal muscle and lactating mammary gland. H-FABP is small intracellular protein involved in fatty acid transport from the plasma membrane to the site of β-oxidation and/or triacylglycerol or phospholipid synthesis. In this study, H-FABP PCR-RFLP was performed in F_(2) population composed of 214 individuals form an intercross between Korean Native Boars and Landrace sows. PCR products form tow primer sets within H-FABP gene were amplified in 850bp and 700bp. Digestion of PCR products with the restriction digestion enzymes HaeⅢ and Hinf Ⅰ, revealed fragment length polymorphisms(RFL. Ps). The genotype frequencies from H-FABP/HaeⅢ was .29 for genotype DD, .53 for genotype Dd, and .15 for genotype dd, respectively. The genotype frequencies of HH, Hh, and hh from H-FABP(hinf Ⅰ was .38, .41, and .20, respectively, in the population.Relationships between their genotypes and economic traits were estimated. In H-FABP/HaeⅢ locus, there were specific genotypes(Dd and dd) associated with economic traits such as body weight. In H-FABP/Hinf Ⅰ Iocus, Genotypes of HH and Hh associated with growth traits such as body weights at 5, 12, and 30 week of age (p<.05 or p<.001) and back fat thickness, body fat including abdominal and trimmed fat (p<.001) and intramuscular fat(p<.05). The 'H'allele was positivecly associated with gaining of body weight and fatness deposition. In conclusion, a significant association of the H-FABP gene from its genetic variation was found on body weight, intramuscular fat and backfat thickness.
모노레일은 그동안 과좌식과 현수식으로 분류 되어 왔으나 세계 최초로 도입한 중앙 안내 방식의 인천 월미은하레일은 신개념의 Y Beam을 가이드 레일로 사용한 새로운 형식의 모노레일이라 할 수 있다. Y Beam 은 안내륜을 통해 모노레일의 수평 하중을 전달하는 역할을 담당하고 있기 때문에 수직 하중을 타이어를 통해 전달 받는 콘크리트 바닥 및 강재 Beam과 함께 모노레일의 주행 안전에 없어서는 안 될 가장 중요한 구조물이다. 본 연구에서는 수평 하중을 감당하고 있을 뿐만 아니라 모노레일의 안정과 안내를 함께 보장 하면서 급전선을 지지하는 역할도 동시에 담당하고 있는 Y Beam과 Y Beam을 고정하는 클램프의 특성과 안전성에 대해 고찰하였다. Monorail has been classified as straddled type and suspended type. However, Inchon Wolmi Eunha rail, a center guide type first ever introduced in the world, uses a new concept Y-Beam as guide rail. Since Y-Beam takes horizontal loads of monorail through guide wheels, it is an essential structure for the safe operation along with concrete surface and steel beam which take vertical loads through main tires. This study presents the characteristic and reliability of Y-Beam and Y-Beam fixture, clamp, which are not only taking horizontal loads but also guarantying both guiding and stability of monorail and holding power supply line.
The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-oxidative effects of taurine on sperm characteristics for in vitro storage of boar semen. Semen was randomly divided into 10 groups in conical tubes and treated with different concentrations of taurine (25-100 mM) with or without 250 ???H2O2. The percentage of motile spermatozoa in taurine groups after 6 and 9 h were significantly higher at >94% and 87%, respectively, compared to the control group (85.1??.5 and 72.4??.3, p<0.05). The sperm motility in taurine with H2O2 after 6 h incubation was slightly decreased compared to the taurine alone treatment, but after 9 and 12 h incubation % sperm motility dropped sharply in taurine with H2O2 (75.3??.3 and 69.6??.9, p<0.05). For 3, 9 and 12 h incubation, sperm viability in the control was lower than in taurine groups, irrespective of taurine concentration. In eosin Y and nigrosin staining (ENS), the sperm survival rates (%) for 6 h incubation were significantly higher in 25 mM (76.0??.6) and 50 mM taurine groups (78.0??.7), respectively. Sperm survival rates for 9 and 12 h incubation were higher in taurine groups (??8% in 9 h and ??2% in 12 h) compared to controls (43.0??.1 and 31.0??.6, respectively). In the hyoosmotic swelling test (HOST), sperm membrane integrity was similar to the results of sperm survival. These experiments indicate that supplementation of taurine to the semen extender can increase the sperm characteristics (motility, viability, survival and membrane integrity).
Human 90K (h90K; Mac-2-binding protein) glycoprotein is a potential pharmaceutical due to its inhibitory activity against cancer metastasis and expansion. Here, h90K glycoprotein was produced in insect Drosophila S2 cell system, and its N-glycan pattern was analyzed. A plasmid encoding h90K gene, fused with a hexahistidine tag under the control of Drosophila metallotionein promoter, was stably transfected into S2 cells. After copper sulfate induction, transfected S2 cells secreted recombinant h90K at a good expression level of 28mg/L in a 150-mL spinner flask culture. The purified recombinant h90K showed an apparent molecular weight of ~78kDa which was much smaller than that (~97kDa) of the natural h90K. Because de-N-glycosylated h90K appeared at ~60kDa protein band, it was suggested that the recombinant h90K from S2 cells has small N-glycans with about half the molecular weight (~18kDa) of N-glycans of the natural h90K. Through detail analyses using high-performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the S2-derived recombinant h90K was confirmed that it has simple paucimannosidic structures containing two or three mannose residues with core fucose as the major (~79%) N-glycans.
We analyzed haplotypes for 22 Y chromosomal STRs (Y-STRs), including 17 Yfiler loci (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DY438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and Y-GATA-H4) and five additional STRs (DYS388, DYS446, DYS447, DYS449 and DYS464), and Y chromosomal haplogroup distribution in 270 unrelated individuals from the Pathans residing in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan using in-house multiplex PCR systems. Each Y-STR showed diversities ranging from 0.2506 to 0.8538, and the discriminatory capacity (DC) was 73.7% with 199 observed haplotypes using 17 Yfiler loci. By the addition of 5 Y-STRs to the Yfiler system, the DC was increased to 85.2% while showing 230 observed haplotypes. Among the additional 5 Y-STRs, DYS446, DYS447 and DYS449 were major contributors to enhancing discrimination. In the analysis of molecular variance, the Pathans of this study showed significant differences from other Pathan populations as well as neighboring population sets. In Y-SNP analysis, a total of 12 Y chromosomal haplogroups were observed and the most frequent haplogroup was R1a1a with 49.3% frequency. To obtain insights on the origin of Pathans, the network analysis was performed for the haplogroups G and Q observed from the Pathans and the Jewish population groups including Ashkenazim and Sephardim, but little support for a Jewish origin could be found. In the present study, we report Y-STR population data in Pathans of Pakistan, and we emphasize the need for adding additional markers to the commonly used 17 Yfiler loci to achieve more improved discriminatory capacity in a population with low genetic diversity.
Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) are useful markers for reconstructing male lineages through hierarchically arranged allelic sets known as haplogroups, and are thereby widely used in the fields such as human evolution, anthropology and forensic genetics. The Y haplogroup tree was recently revised with newly suggested Y-SNP markers for designation of several subgroups of haplogroups C2, O2b and O3a, which are predominant in Koreans. Therefore, herein we analyzed these newly suggested Y-SNPs in 545 unrelated Korean males who belong to the haplogroups C2, O2b or O3a, and investigated the reconstructed topology of the Y haplogroup tree. We were able to confirm that markers L1373, Z1338/JST002613-27, Z1300, CTS2657, Z8440 and F845 define the C2 subhaplogroups, C2b, C2e, C2e1, C2e1a, C2e1b and C2e2, respectively, and that markers F3356, L682, F11, F238/F449 and F444 define the O subhaplogroups O2b1, O2b1b, O3a1c1, O3a1c2 and O3a2c1c, respectively. Among six C2 subhaplogroups (C2b, C2e, C2e1*, C2e1a, C2e1b and C2e2), the C2e haplogroup and its subhaplogroups were found to be predominant, and among the four O2b subhaplogroups (O2b*, O2b1*, O2b1a and O2b1b), O2b1b was most frequently observed. Among the O3a subhaplogroups, O3a2c1 was predominant and it was further divided into the subhaplogroups O3a2c1a and O3a2c1c with a newly suggested marker. However, the JST002613-27 marker, which had been known to define the haplogroup C2f, was found to be an ancestral marker of the C2e haplogroup, as is the Z1338 marker. Also, the M312 marker for the O2b1 haplogroup designation was replaced by F3356, because all of the O2b1 haplotypes showed a nucleotide change at F3356, but not at M312. In addition, the F238 marker was always observed to be phylogenetically equivalent to F449, while both of the markers were assigned to the O3a1c2 haplogroup. The confirmed phylogenetic tree of this study with the newly suggested Y-SNPs could be valuable for anthropological and forensic investigations of East Asians including Koreans.
A directionally solidified CM247LC alloy was exposed at 871 °C and 982 °C for 1000 h, 5000 h, and 10000h under free stress in order to study the effect of microstructural degradation on the creep properties. None of the specimens exposed at temperatures up to 10000 h produced any kind of topologically close-packed phases because of the excellent phase stability of CM247LC alloy. The plate-like M6C carbide was formed only at exposure of 982 °C for 10000 h through a decomposition reaction between γ and MC. Moreover, an M23C6 carbide layer was observed between the M6C and the matrix. The exposure at 982°C for 5000 h and 10000 h had a spontaneous rafting of γ′ under free stress, while the exposure at 871 °C for 1000 h, 5000 h,and 10000 h had a non-rafted structure. The spontaneous rafted structure resulted in a drastic decrease in creep life. A 3-dimensional morphology of γ′ in the as-crept specimens, which were pre-exposed at 982 °C for 5000 h and 10000 h, had a non-rafted structure. This microstructural feature proves that the significant decrease in creep life of the specimen resulted from a loss of coherency between γ and γ′.