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In 1931, Lotus Delta Coffman, President of the University of Minnesota and noted Progressive educational reformer, refused to admit a black student to residence in the newly constructed Pioneer Hall. This project explores and elucidates the underlying consciousness and ideology that supported such racial segregation as a liberal, progressive, and necessary practice in the national interest. I analyze a rich trove of archived material revealing sedimented layers of institutional racism, much of it motivated by changing patterns of urban migration, immigration, and gender expectations. With astonishing candor, administrators from universities across the country shared strategies for justifying and enforcing segregated facilities, thereby muddying usual conceptions of the American Progressive movement and throwing into confusion traditional binaries of left and right. I interrogate administrative and faculty correspondence, census documents, international scientific journals, and other sources, to determine why segregation was implemented, who resisted it, and how it was defeated. I use the University of Minnesota specifically, and land-grant universities more generally, as sites to link the imperial imperative to manage colonized populations abroad and "deviant" populations at home with the consolidation of categorization behind residential segregation was active throughout the university, shaping its social space and institutional structure, and that this system was supported by the work of many disciplines, from medicine to anthropology, from psychology to horticulture. In turn, this ideology of biologically based management was not only vindicated by these various other disciplines but was instrumental in shaping them---and the University itself.
Data reconciliation is a well-documented approach for estimating values of measured process variables that are consistent with their constraining mass and energy balances. A great deal of research has been done on steady state data reconciliation but far less has focused on dynamic data reconciliation, especially nonlinear dynamic data reconciliation. In addition, the practical aspects of implementing data reconciliation strategies on-line in an industrial environment has not been addressed adequately. The problem of data reconciliation and the detection and identification of gross errors, such as measurement bias, are closely related. In order to produce reliable estimates, standard formulations of the data reconciliation problem require data that are free of systematic errors. Many techniques designed to detect such irregularities include a data reconciliation step in the algorithm. This close relationship prompted the development of a technique that combines these ideas, treating the presence of measurement bias as a discrete event and expressing it through the use of binary variables. This simultaneous method for data reconciliation and bias detection/identification requires the solution of a mixed integer optimization problem. The principal goals of this dissertation are twofold; to improve on-line data reconciliation methods by presenting practical solutions to problems encountered in real-world applications and to integrate data reconciliation and bias detection and identification methods into a single coherent strategy. All the while keeping the feasibility of on-line implementation in mind. The combined data reconciliation and bias detection/identification method is developed on simple linear steady state systems and extended to be applicable to nonlinear and dynamic systems as well. This method has successfully been applied in simulation and is superior to other published methods.
The majority of studies in children's acquisition of syntax have focused on production. However, research suggests that infants understand more about their language than they are themselves producing. The current work focused on one aspect of early syntax, the inflectional marker, -<italic>s</italic>, which functions both as a plural nominal inflection and the 3<super>rd</super> person singular verbal inflection, in the receptive domain. The properties of the use of such inflectional markers by young children have generated a great deal of theoretical interest in the production literature. Experiments 1 and 2 tested 19-month-olds' sensitivity to this marker in singular, plural, and ungrammatical contexts, using the Headturn Preference Procedure. These infants preferred listening to grammatical passages when compared with uninflected ungrammatical passages, but showed no preference when compared with doubly inflected ungrammatical passages. This finding contradicts those in the productive domain, in which young children are much more likely to produce errors of omission than commission in verbal inflection. It raises questions about the extent to which such receptive research can be viewed as a grammatical effect, and the nature of the relationship between receptive and productive grammatical knowledge. Experiment 3 compared adults' ability to detect these -<italic>s</italic> markers in natural speech versus synthesized speech. Participants were faster and more accurate at detecting these “s” sounds in the natural speech than in the synthesized speech. Experiments 4 and 5 tested infants' understanding of the plural marker -<italic>s</italic>, using the Preferential Looking Procedure. Infants were presented with one- and two-object displays and given singular and plural auditory requests to look at the object(s). Neither 19- nor 23-month-olds showed a preference for the display (one- or two-object) matching the appropriate auditory stimulus (plural or singular) compared with the inappropriate auditory stimulus. These results suggest that by 19 months, infants are sensitive to the presence of the -<italic>s</italic> inflectional marker, but do not yet have a full grasp of its appropriate grammatical use. Furthermore, they have important potential implications for the relationship between early receptive and productive grammar, as well as our understanding of the nature of grammar itself.
This dissertation asserts that a social interpretation of the body offers a significant foundation for ethical analyses in health care institutions. An individualistic interpretation adequately conceptualizes neither the sociality of our embodiment nor the social body. This project develops a moral anthropology based on a social understanding of the body. It further specifies 'the social' by envisioning ethical civic relations that incorporate embodied difference. Embodied difference informs the defining and organizing of goods delivered by health care institutions. A social interpretation of the body within the civic unit contributes much both to the theoretical component of institution shaping and to the way society understands the role of health care institutions. The project begins by analyzing key medical ethics texts to show how an individualistic emphasis inadequately frames social goods. It then builds on the work of Karl Rahner and Luce Irigaray to construct an interpretive framework for analyzing the goals of health care institutions. The project confines the discussion to their phenomenological analyses, in which their approaches to the body sustain and complement one another. Rahner focuses on the body within symbolic exchange, while Irigaray addresses how gender informs and gives ethical vision to civic identities. Finally, the project applies this moral anthropology to the issue of abortion and public policy. It asserts that goods that emerge from the sociality of the body---full participation, material well-being, and respect for difference---advance civic flourishing.