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균일 流動場에 잠겨있는 2차원 bluff물체 뒤의 非定常, 剝離流動을 渦流追跡法으로 Cray-2 電算機를 사용하여 계산하였다. 먼저 渦流追跡法 자체에 대한 검토와 단일물 체 주위의 공기역학적 기초사항의 조사를 위해 여러가지 날개의 물체에 渦流追跡法을 적용하였다. 이어 後流의 상호간섭에 대한 연구를 위해 자유유동에 대하여 수직방향 으로 배열된 다수의 평판에 이 방법을 적용하였다. 날개의 물체에 관한 계산에는 여러 가지 側面比의 사각형실린더, 이등변삼각형실린더, 半타원형실린더, 圓弧를 포함하였 다. 다수 평판의 일렬 평면 또는 원형곡면배열에서는 중앙에 開口部(opening)가 있는 경우와 없는 경우에 대하여 계산하였다. 날개의 물체에 대한 계산에서는 측면비가 큰 경우 抗力係數가 실험치와 잘 일치하였다. 그러나 평판과 같이 측면비가 작은 물체에 대하여 계산한 抗力은 실험치 보다 크게 나타났다. 剝離剪斷層간의 상호작용 지연과 base cavity의 크기가 물체의 抗力과 밀접한 관계가 있음이 확인되었다. 多數평판 뒷 면에서의 後流干涉에 대한 간격비(spacing ratio)의 효과를 渦流追跡法에 의하여 예측 할 수 있었다. 간격비가 2. 0을 넘을 때는 약한 後流干涉 때문에 각 평판의 渦流發散(v ortex shedding)과 抗力이 평판 한개의 경우와 거의 같았고, 실험에서와 같이 간격비 가 2. 0이하일 때 틈流動(gap flow)이 휘어짐을 확인하였다. 多數평판의 경우 간격비가 커짐에 따라 抗力이 감소하였으며, 곡면배열의 경우 曲率이 클 수록 抗力이 작아진다 는 사실이 확인되었다. 중앙에 開口部가 있을 때는 抗力이 현저히 감소하였고, 渦流發 散이 억제되었다. 그러나 多數평판에 대하여 계산한 抗力係數는 실험치 보다 높게 나 타났다. 이것은 측면비가 작은 물체에 대하여 계산한 抗力係數가 높았던 것이 그 원인 으로 생각되므로 渦流追跡法의 개선이 요망된다. The global nuclear nonproliferation regime (the NPT regime), based on the NPT, theIAEA, the UN, and the NSG, tends to rely on the supply-side strategic options such as export controls, diversion controls, and punitive sanctions. However, in spite of its remarkable achievements, the NPT regime reveals its limitations in halting nuclear proliferation. In this situation, the demand-side strategy, based on the strategic bargaining for reducing the aspirations of a proliferator for nuclear weapons, emerges as an alternative to nuclear nonproliferation, The North Korean case of nuclear proliferation (from mid 199 1 to December 1995) is an exemplary one which showed the potential of the demand-side strategy. As the NPT regime failed to fully dissuade North Korea from going nuclear, the U.S. and South Korea stroke several bargaining deals with North Korea in order to denuclearize the KoreanPeninsula. North Korea tried to protect or promote its national interests by using its nuclear proliferation option as bargaining leverage. Meanwhile, the U.S. and South Korea adopted diverse strategic options which could affect the incentives and disincentives of North Korea for nuclear weapons.North Korea, South Korea, and the U.S. as bargaining parties faced a variety ofuncertainties which they had to cope with in order to enhance the procedural orsubstantive rationality of their strategic choices. In the strategic bargaining to resolve the North Korean nuclear dispute, the patterns of uncertainty management (uncertainty ignoring, uncertainty reduction, uncertainty accommodation, and uncertainty overlooking) influenced the strategic choices of North Korea, South Korea, and the U. S.(conceding strategy, demanding strategy, and compromising strategy). Moreover, the patterns of uncertainty management also affected the bargaining outputs (conflict, cooperation, and capitulation) by influencing the combination of strategic choices of bargaining parties. Uncertainty as a critical variable had a significant impact on the dynamicity of the strategic nuclear bargaining.This research has significance in three dimensions. In theoretical terms, this research contributes to developing the managerial approach to uncertainty which is newly emerging because of the limitations of the analytic approach to uncertainty. In practical terms, this research helps the understanding of the nuclear incentives, bargaining strategies, and bargaining tactics of North Korea as a nuclear proliferator. In policy terms, this research shows the weaknesses of the supply-side options of the NPT regime, especially the IAEA nuclear inspections and the UN sanctions. Meanwhile, this research reveals the limitations and potential of the demand-side strategic options which can be selected within or beyond the NPT regime.Index Words: Analytic approach, Conflict, Cooperation, Diversion controls,Export controls, IAEA, Managerial approach, NPT, NPT regime, North Korea, Nuclear Incentives, Nuclear nonproliferation, Nuclear proliferation, Punitive sanctions, Strategic choice, Supply-side strategy, UN, UN Sanctions, Uncertainty, Uncertainty management,
옥수수의 조숙성 관여 양적유전자(QTL)의 염색체상 위치를 결정하기 위하여 제한효소 절편길이 다형화현상(RFLP)기법을 이용하여 분석하였다. 실용친으로 사용된옥수수 품종은 B73, MO17, A679수수 근교계 8계통이었고 공여친으로는조숙성닌 GASPE, A662, MT42, A632E를 사용하였다. 여교잡공여친, 반복친등모두 36개 품종의 옥수수를 3개의 제한효소와 167개의 RFLP 표식마커로 탐침한객牡쉼�같다. 먼저 BDL 분석법에서는 1번 염색체상의 표식인자 UMC11,5번염색체상의 UMC27 8번염의 UMC 12와 UMC 89 표식마커들이 적어도 두개의여고잡 계통 비교 조합에서 조숙공여친이 다름에하고 조숙성유전자와 밀접히연관된 것으로 나타났다. 8번염색체상의 표식마커 UMC12는 A662 X B73집단과 A679 X B73의 F2집단 RFLP분석에서 개화기에 대한 유전적 결정계수(r2)가 각각 29%와 30%났으며 UMC12 영역은 또다른 F2 집단인 N28E와 N28의 교배 집단에서도 개화기와 50%의 높은결정개づ립뻬�이 영역이 조숙성 QTL 과의 연관이 매우 높음을 알 수 있었다. 따라서 BDL 분석법에 의프�옥수수의 조숙관여 QTL은 DP x RP F2 집단은 물론BDL x RP F2 집단에서도 고도의 연관성이 확따라 옥수수 8번 염색체상의UMC12영역은 조숙성을 지배하는 주동 QTL일 가능성이 큰것으로 보인느肩��TL의 유전자 행동은 상가적으로 나타났으므로 차후 QTL의 염색체단리를 통하여형질전환후작물을 기내에서 육성할수 있는 가능성을 제시함은 물론 기존육종과의 연계를 통하여 양적형질 읗�볍만恣�육종효율성 제고에 기여할 수있으리라고 본다.
This study is an exploratory examination of the culture learning experiences of university study abroad students during their time abroad as reflected in essays written during the in-country phase. I conducted a content analysis of six essays each of ten University of Minnesota students who studied in Australia for one semester and who participated in an online, strategies-based, culture learning course for which I was the instructor. It is a general understanding among international educators that in order to develop interculturally, one must go through the challenges inherent in the discomfort of negotiating the unfamiliar territory of a new culture, recognize cultural difference, and be able to accommodate it. However, Hofstede's research contends that Australia and the United States have similar cultural dimension scores. Related to that, the students included in this study predictably had experiences of lower psychological stress when considering Paige's Intensity Factors. While working with the students studying in Australia these points led to the question, "Do students studying in similar cultures to their own experience challenges or discomfort if the host culture doesn't feel new?" This developed into the research question of this study, which was "To what extent is there evidence of intercultural development as seen in the students' essays?". The students, for the most part, were able to acknowledge surface-level differences, e.g., vocabulary terminology, but less often discussed deeper cultural differences such as values and beliefs. It is my opinion based on analysis of the students' writings that all of the students wrote from ethnocentric perspectives. They claimed to be accepting of the differences between their home and host cultures, but often struggled to pinpoint said differences. Without recognition of differences between cultures' values and beliefs, it is not possible to cultivate an ethnorelative worldview. That said, many of the student development outcomes that the University of Minnesota desires for its graduates overlap with outcomes desired by study abroad programs. The University of Minnesota's student development outcomes that overlap with the University's Learning Abroad Center's desired student outcomes include independence, self awareness, resilience, appreciation of differences, and tolerance of ambiguity. These are also the major outcomes discussed in the final essays by the students in this study. In conclusion, while the students in this study struggled to articulate cultural differences between Australia and the United States, they did describe their own personal development in terms that match the desired development outcomes of both the University of Minnesota and of study abroad programs in general. These personal development outcomes are necessary steps toward building the basis of intercultural sensitivity development.
This dissertation examines the economic impact of a post secondary institution. The central reason for this study is public policy concerns. All post secondary institutions receive public funding, directly through cash grants and indirectly through student aid, and the impact of these institutions on the state's economy must concern public policy makers. An institution impacts the economy in three central ways; through current spending on compensation and goods and services, developing human capital that leads to higher lifetime incomes for students, and creating and disseminating new knowledge that improves economic productivity and leads to new goods and services. An adequate examination of the economic impact requires a careful construction of a conceptual model that includes all three ways. There are two important economic concepts not always considered in these studies in the literature. The first is that economic activity may be attributable to an institution, but this activity may not be totally new to the state. Internally generated resources simply shift activity from another location or industry in the state to the institution. On the other hand, new resources brought into the state by non-resident students, federal grants, and other related means create new activity. The second is the adequate measurement of dynamic relationships in the economy. Regional economists have developed sophisticated tools to measure changes in labor markets, wage rates and income, inter-industry relationships, and population due to new spending. An economic model that ignores these relationships will inaccurately estimate the impact of the institution and result in misleading conclusions. The conceptual model is applied to the University of Minnesota. However, the paper only presents an empirical measure of the economic impact from current economic activity. Economic activity attributable to the University of Minnesota is initially about 2% of the state total, but this drops to about 1.5% over a decade as the economy responds to new spending levels. The new activity created by the University through new resources brought into the state is only about one-third this level. For technical reasons related to import substitution this latter figure should be considered a lower bound.
In 1931, Lotus Delta Coffman, President of the University of Minnesota and noted Progressive educational reformer, refused to admit a black student to residence in the newly constructed Pioneer Hall. This project explores and elucidates the underlying consciousness and ideology that supported such racial segregation as a liberal, progressive, and necessary practice in the national interest. I analyze a rich trove of archived material revealing sedimented layers of institutional racism, much of it motivated by changing patterns of urban migration, immigration, and gender expectations. With astonishing candor, administrators from universities across the country shared strategies for justifying and enforcing segregated facilities, thereby muddying usual conceptions of the American Progressive movement and throwing into confusion traditional binaries of left and right. I interrogate administrative and faculty correspondence, census documents, international scientific journals, and other sources, to determine why segregation was implemented, who resisted it, and how it was defeated. I use the University of Minnesota specifically, and land-grant universities more generally, as sites to link the imperial imperative to manage colonized populations abroad and "deviant" populations at home with the consolidation of categorization behind residential segregation was active throughout the university, shaping its social space and institutional structure, and that this system was supported by the work of many disciplines, from medicine to anthropology, from psychology to horticulture. In turn, this ideology of biologically based management was not only vindicated by these various other disciplines but was instrumental in shaping them---and the University itself.
The purpose of this research project was to expand the knowledge base pertaining to interim presidential experiences within the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin. This qualitative research project was a phenomenological study based on interviews with nineteen individuals regarding their perspective of interim presidents within the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin. The nineteen interviewees consisted of eight interim presidents, four from Minnesota and four from Wisconsin. These interim presidents have had at least one experience as an interim president within Minnesota or Wisconsin within the past ten years. The interim experiences were at public institutions of higher education fitting the classification of a Master's University as defined by the Carnegie classification. Interviews were also conducted with the chair or a member of the search and screen committee seeking a permanent president during these eight interim presidential periods. Finally, three top administrators within the state systems of Minnesota and Wisconsin were interviewed. Two of these administrators were from Minnesota, one from the University of Minnesota System and one from the Minnesota State College and University System. The other system administrator interviewed was from the University of Wisconsin System. Data from these nineteen interviews was analyzed with the help of Ethnograph v5.0. This software helped in the management of data files and effectively coded the data files for analysis. The finding of this research project contributes to prior research conducted by, Sheahon Jay Zenger (1996) who determined that Dr. Shankel used a consensus building style of leadership. However, since Zenger's research dealt with the leadership style of only one individual, he posed the question of whether other interim leaders also used the consensus style of leadership. The analysis of the data determined that interim presidential leaders do in fact use the consensus-building style of leadership. All eight interim presidential leaders described their leadership style using terms indicating that they relied upon the consensus style of leadership.