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In this paper, the neighbourhood's morphology has been evaluated according to socio-behavioural aspects and sense of place. It seems that place attachment, social bonding, and total time residents spent in local spaces are highly determined by neighbourhood's socio-behavioural dimensions, and in turn, neighbourhood's morphological attributes have a great impact on socio-behavioural dimensions. To verify the hypothesis, 843 participants have been selected through Neyman allocation modelling from 5 morphologically representative neighbourhoods. The built-environment attributes were gathered through an objective method (GIS). Sense of place, meantime residents, spent in public spaces, socio-behavioural indicators, and a number of socio-demographic characteristics were collected by self-administered questionnaires. According to our analysis, high and middle-rise neighbourhoods, with low coverage massing, by providing plenty of wide, non-hierarchical, and inter-connected spaces, could ensure personal privacy, anonymity, and consequently autonomy, genuineness, and tendency to use neighbourhood spaces. In contrast, historic organic neighbourhoods with narrow hierarchical pathways and massing alongside them increase the level of social monitoring and conformity. Thus, policies that support mixed-use, connected street networks, plenty of shared open spaces, non- hierarchical network patterns, and smaller block sizes can be used by urban designers to promote neighbourhoods supporting residents' psycho-social preferences.
The optimal amount of 15 wt%Co/10 wt%K/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared using the impregnation technique in order to study the kinetics of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The rate of synthesis was measured in a fixed-bed micro reactor with H2/CO feed ratio of 1-3 and space velocity in the range of 2,700-5,200 h−1 under reactor pressure of 8 bar and a temperature range of 210-240 oC. The experimental data were best fitted by a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW) approach rate in the form of −rCO=(k2K1PCOPH2)/(1+K1PCO). Furthermore, the data were fitted fairly well by a power law equation in the form of −rCO=kPCO 1.32PH21.42. The activation energies for LHHW approach model and power law equation were obtained as 138.5 kJ/mol and 87.39 kJ/mol, respectively.
This research work investigated the effects of SiO2 and ZrO2 nanoparticles type and content incorporated into anepoxy matrix on the high velocity impact behavior of carbon fiber reinforced aluminum laminates (CARALL). CARALLspecimens consisted of a 0/90/90/0 stacking sequence of a carbon-epoxy composite containing 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 wt% of each ofnanoparticles sandwiched between two layers of aluminum 2024-T3. To observe the toughening effects of the nanoparticleson the fracture surface of the impacted CARALL, a typical field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) wasemployed. Impact energy absorption of CARALL was at most increased by 18 % and 12 % with the nanoparticles content of5 wt% SiO2 and 3 wt% ZrO2, respectively. Overloading of the nanoparticles content up to 7 wt% resulted in the creation ofnanoparticles aggregated sites associated with loss in the energy absorption capacity. FESEM fractography procedure alsoshowed that the crack deflection and pinning were the most recognizable toughening mechanisms exhibited by nanoparticles. Overall, the controlled addition of SiO2/ZrO2 rigid nanoparticles to CARALL was found to be a promising method forimproving the high velocity impact energy absorption of CARALL.
Monodispersed 4.1 nm FePt nanoparticles with narrow size distribution were successfully synthesized by the chemical polyol process with co-reduction of Fe(acac)3 and Pt(acac)2 in the presence of 1,2-hexadecanediol as a reducing agent. To achieve hard ferromagnetic behavior with L10 phase and face center tetragonal (fct) structure, high temperature annealing is performed. Annealing causes the surfactant surrounding particles to decompose and agglomeration of particles occurs. In the present work, chemically synthesized FePt nanoparticles were coated with nonmagnetic ZnO oxide shell to prevent them from sintering. Coercivity of FePt and FePt/ZnO nanoparticles increases from 5 kOe to 10 kOe and 1.8 kOe to 6 kOe respectively, with the increasing annealing temperatures from 650 to 750?C.
The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most important pest of pomegranate orchards (in terms of economic damage) within Iran, and hence, several control procedures, including biological methods of control, have been attempted as a means of controlling populations of this insect. This research was carried out in order to study the biology of Apanteles myeloenta (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the carob moth. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine larval developmental time, adult longevity, sex ratio, parasite progeny production, and host stage preference of A. myeloenta. At 25±1 °C, immature developmental time (egg to pupa; mean±SE) was 28.33±0.85 days and 27.46±0.37 days for male and females, respectively. Adult females survived on average 17.5±0.14, 11.7±0.22,3.4±0.18, and 2.8±0.12 days at 25 C when provided with honey and water, honey only, water only or no food source, respectively. The sex ratio (females to males) of A. myeloenta was 1:3.5 from hosts parasitized in the first instar, 1:3 for second instars and 1:2 for third instar carob moth larvae. Female A. myeloenta typically preferred to parasitize second instar over third or first instar. The oviposition activity peaked on the 7th and 8th days following emergence, when provided with honey, and 10% sucrose solution, respectively
In Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, because of few reactants (H_2, CO), scarce operating parameters affected on efficiency especially the selectivity of products. In this research, effect of operating parameters on the selectivity of Co-Mn-TiO_2 Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst were studied by design of experimental procedure and Taguchi method. According to this research, interactions between operating factors have a crucial effect on light products selectivity. Among these interactions, (temperature×feed ratio) has the main influence on light hydrocarbons selectivity. It was concluded that temperature and feed ratio (H_2/CO) were the most integral operating parameters for much greater selectivity of light hydrocarbons.
Two completely randomized block design experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation processing of canola meal on performance parameters of broiler chicks (Ross 308) and protein quality of canola meal. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein ratio (NPR) were measured as indices of canola meal protein quality. Samples of canola meal were tested for nutritional value after being irradiated at dose levels 10, 20 and 30 kGy. Glucosinolate content was reduced 40, 70 and 89 percent at irradiation dose levels of 10, 20 and 30 kGy respectively (p<0.01). Percent of erucic acid in total fatty acid content increased 44, 58 and 48% as a function of radiation dose (p<0.01). Dose levels did not affect feed conversion ratio (FCR) and body weight gain of chicks (p>0.05). Liver weight was decreased by irradiation dose (p<0.05). The same trend was observed for kidney weights, but this trend was not significant (p>0.05). Gamma irradiation processing of canola meal had no significant effect on T₃ level in blood of chickens that consumed canola meal, but T₄ level of chicken blood at the 30 kGy dose decreased significantly (p<0.05). PER and NPR were not affected by radiation dose level (p>0.05). Gamma irradiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the nutritional quality of canola meal.
In this paper a novel method of the Ant Colony Optimization algorithm for rotor position estimation in Switched Reluctance Motors is presented. The data provided by the initial assumptions is one of the important aspects used to solve the problems relative to an Ant Colony algorithm. Considering the nature of a real ant colony, it was found that the ants have no primary data for deducing which is the shortest path in their initial iteration. They also do not have the ability to see the food sources at a distance. According to this point of view, a novel method is presented in which the rotor pole position relative to the corresponding stator pole in a switched reluctance motor is estimated with high accuracy using the active and inactive phase parameters. This new method gives acceptable results such as a desirable convergence together with an optimized and stable response. To the best knowledge of the authors, such an analysis has not been carried out previously.
In this paper, an index is proposed for the detection of static eccentricity (SE), dynamic eccentricity (DE), and mixed eccentricity (ME) in a three-phase permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The proposed index is the amplitude of the sideband components with a particular frequency pattern which is extracted from the spectrum of the stator voltage. This index can be used in no load state prior to the loading of the generator which can cause damage in eccentricity conditions. Moreover, the proposed index works properly in loaded condition. Extraction of the proper indexes highly depends on precise computation of the necessary signals. Therefore, in order to fulfil the required precision, the time-stepping finite element method (TSFEM) is used to model the PMSG under eccentricity fault and to calculate the stator voltage as an appropriate signal for processing.