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The purpose of this study was to compare the differences of moral reasoning among general students, sports related majors students, and student athletes in Korea and Japan University. We collected total 612 out of 700 (315 from Korea, 297 from Japan) and 88 questionnaires were excluded questionnaire due to incompleteness and unreliable data. For this study, Hahm-Bellar Values Choice Inventory-16(HBVCI-16), which is a Moral Reasoning Questionnaire on Sports Activities, was used. The collected data was analyzed by t-test, one way ANOVA and two way ANOVA with using SPSS Var. 17.0 statistical package program and result were as follow. First, the Japan student`s overall score of moral reasoning were lower compare to Korean university students. Second, there were 1 % higher score of moral reasoning in woman against man and in younger subjects. Sports majored university students presented 1% higher score against other related students and higher grade students presented 5% higher score against lower grade students. Third, among student athletes of Korea and Japan, although there were no significant differences, it was 0.1% higher among those who engaged in individual sports and 5% higher score in those who have less sports career.
Most of computer-aided process planning(CAPP) systems have been developed to automate the process planning function. In this paper, we describe an analytical model for a CAPP system in order to improve the performance of production system in flexible manufacturing systems(FMSs) for computer intergrated manufacturing(CIM) architecture. This paper proposes an optimal process planning that minimizes the load time by minimizing the cycle time and the number of workstations using Kang and Hahm's heuristic approach so as to improve the performance of production system under the batch production of discrete products. We also perform simulation using SIMAN language to campare the line utilization of each for various product types. The proposed algorithm can be implemented in existing FMSs for on-line control of product quantity using programmable logic controllers(PLC) and communication devices.
<P>Glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications for proteins, including therapeutic antibodies, and greatly influences protein physiochemical properties. In this study, glycopeptide mapping of a reference and biosimilar recombinant antibodies (rAbs) was performed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and an automated Glycoproteome Analyzer (GPA) algorithm. The tandem mass analyses for the reference and biosimilar samples indicate that this approach proves to be highly efficient in reproducing consistent analytical results and discovering the implications of different rAb production methods on glycosylation patterns. Furthermore, the comparative analysis of a mutagenized rAb glycoprotein proved that a single amino acid mutation in the Fc portion of the antibody molecule caused increased variations in glycosylation patterns. These variations were also detected by the mass spectrometry method efficiently. This mapping method, focusing on precise glycopeptide identification and comparison for the identified glycoforms, can be useful in differentiating aberrant glycosylation in biosimilar rAb products.</P>
고염식식습관은 다양한 질병을 일으키고 공중보건을 위협할 수 있다. 그 동안 고염식식습관을 통제하기 위한 다양한 시도가 이루어져 왔으나 건강커뮤니케이션을 통해 고염식식습관을 변화시킬 수 있는지에 대한 연구는 아직 이루어지지 못하였다. 본 연구는 고염식의위험성과 식습관의 통제가능성에 대한 인식이 고염식식습관을 얼마나 예측하는지를 검토함으로써 식습관 개선 교육을 위한 시사점을 찾고자 하였다. 이러한 연구목적을 달성하기 위해 보호동기 이론의 하위요인인심각성, 취약성, 효율성, 효능 및 행동 경향을 측정하기 위한 설문지를 개발하였으며 설문지를 충남소재 대학의 대학생들과 그들의 가족을 대상으로 배포하였다. 설문결과를 SPSS프로그램으로 분석한 결과를 보면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 청년층은 장년층보다 나트륨섭취가 더 많았다. 둘째, 상관관계분석에서 장년층은 고염식으로 인한 위험에 취약하다는 것을 알고 있지만 고염식을 억제할 수 있다고 확신할 때 까지는 식습관을 바꾸지 않는다. 셋째, 구조모델분석에 따르면 대처지각이 높을수록 고염식식습관의 경향성이 낮아지는 경향을 보인다. 이 결과는 고염식식습관을 줄이기 위해서는 실행 가능한 정보를 제공하고 저염식을 하였을 때 어떤 변화가 발생하는지를 인식 시킴으로써 대처지각을 높이는 방안이 더 효과적임을 시사한다. High sodium dietary habits may cause various diseases, thereby threatening the public health. Various efforts have been made to control high sodium use in diets, but few studies have been conducted on health communication efforts to modify such habits. This study looks for suggestions for diet improvement education by examining whether or not high sodium dietary habits can be predicted by a consumer's perception on the threat and controllability of high sodium diets. In this study, a questionnaire was developed to measure the severity, vulnerability, efficiency, efficacy, and behavioral tendencies of the consumer, which were subscales of the protective motivation theory. The questionnaire was given to university students and their families in Chungnam Province. The results of a statistical analysis were as follows: First, more young people preferred high-sodium diets than older people. Second, the correlation analysis showed that older people knew that they were vulnerable to the negative effects of high sodium diets, but they would not change their dietary habits until they were confident that they could control the high-sodium diet. Third, the structural model analysis showed that the higher the coping perception was, the lower was the tendency to consume a high-sodium diet. These results suggest that in the effort to reduce high-sodium diets, it is more effective to provide viable information and improve efficacy.
At the very least, The Bostonians dramatizes the emergence of rival discursive claims, from the 'counter-public sphere' of feminism to the publicity of the mass media. More positively the novel may be read as an attempt to trace the historical transformation of the public sphere in all its complex and contradictory guises. There is perhaps no novel of which it could be more aptly said that it was written as a commentary on its age than The Bostonians. Of course, this is not to say that The Bostonians offers a more truthful account of its historical or social content than other fictional narratives by James. Rather, it is to suggest that, in this particular novel, the sign of the 'age' is constituted both as the object of fictional representation and as a rhetorical element in its interpretation. It is true that Henry James regarded newspapers as slightly vulgar, ephemeral productions, full of dated material useful only for the moment's diversion. He also had distinct misgivings about American newspapers and the extent to which a mane of letters could work for them without compromising his art. Reading Dana and company alongside James shows James troubled by the culturally mythologized figure of the hard-facts "energetic reporter". (CN 19) In The Bostonians, Pardon, Tarrant, and Basil function as displacements for James's anxiety about the popular press, while they offer occasions to demonstrate its inferiority. Especially Basil is constructed without the distasteful attributes of the print promoter, but his writings are neither literary nor prolific, and they reveal fundamentally ineffectual. In other words, writing The Bostonians, an American story not an artificial, hapless thing, James creates two straw newsmen―Pardon and Tarrant―who seem to have walked directly out of Pope's Dunciad, trailing clouds of Dullness with them. Basil Ransom is a more worthy opponent, but his literary output is of no account.