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The purpose of this study was to compare the differences of moral reasoning among general students, sports related majors students, and student athletes in Korea and Japan University. We collected total 612 out of 700 (315 from Korea, 297 from Japan) and 88 questionnaires were excluded questionnaire due to incompleteness and unreliable data. For this study, Hahm-Bellar Values Choice Inventory-16(HBVCI-16), which is a Moral Reasoning Questionnaire on Sports Activities, was used. The collected data was analyzed by t-test, one way ANOVA and two way ANOVA with using SPSS Var. 17.0 statistical package program and result were as follow. First, the Japan student`s overall score of moral reasoning were lower compare to Korean university students. Second, there were 1 % higher score of moral reasoning in woman against man and in younger subjects. Sports majored university students presented 1% higher score against other related students and higher grade students presented 5% higher score against lower grade students. Third, among student athletes of Korea and Japan, although there were no significant differences, it was 0.1% higher among those who engaged in individual sports and 5% higher score in those who have less sports career.
Most of computer-aided process planning(CAPP) systems have been developed to automate the process planning function. In this paper, we describe an analytical model for a CAPP system in order to improve the performance of production system in flexible manufacturing systems(FMSs) for computer intergrated manufacturing(CIM) architecture. This paper proposes an optimal process planning that minimizes the load time by minimizing the cycle time and the number of workstations using Kang and Hahm's heuristic approach so as to improve the performance of production system under the batch production of discrete products. We also perform simulation using SIMAN language to campare the line utilization of each for various product types. The proposed algorithm can be implemented in existing FMSs for on-line control of product quantity using programmable logic controllers(PLC) and communication devices.
<P>Glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications for proteins, including therapeutic antibodies, and greatly influences protein physiochemical properties. In this study, glycopeptide mapping of a reference and biosimilar recombinant antibodies (rAbs) was performed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and an automated Glycoproteome Analyzer (GPA) algorithm. The tandem mass analyses for the reference and biosimilar samples indicate that this approach proves to be highly efficient in reproducing consistent analytical results and discovering the implications of different rAb production methods on glycosylation patterns. Furthermore, the comparative analysis of a mutagenized rAb glycoprotein proved that a single amino acid mutation in the Fc portion of the antibody molecule caused increased variations in glycosylation patterns. These variations were also detected by the mass spectrometry method efficiently. This mapping method, focusing on precise glycopeptide identification and comparison for the identified glycoforms, can be useful in differentiating aberrant glycosylation in biosimilar rAb products.</P>
Negatively complexed copper ion by complexing agent like EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacteic acid) was removed by predispered solvent extraction (PDSE) using colloidal liquid aphrons (CLAs) made out of Trioctylmetylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) diluted with nonpolar kerosene. PDSE was found to have higher mass transfer rate than conventional solvent extraction under experimental conditions without mechanical mixing. The effect of type of water-soluble surfactants, phase volume ratio (PVR), concentration of anionic Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate (SDBS) on PDSE was investigated. In addition, the effect of anionic SDBS on back extraction in PDSE was also studied. Under experimental conditions with enough mechanical mixing, the amount of copper transferred to Aliquat 336 core from the pregnant phase was compared in both PDSE by using anionic SDBS and conventional solvent extraction. It is concluded that PDSE using Aliquat 336 CLA can be used for treatment of negatively complexed copper without the influence of surfactant. To optimize CLAs-based process, stability of CLAs containing a quaternary ammonium salt Aliquat 336 diluted with kerosene in the continuous phase was investigated by measuring the volume released to surface. To destabilize CLAs, H^(+), OH^(-) were added. Stability of CLAs was estimated by comparing the halflife obtained. Break-up of destabilization follows pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics at low ionic strength. But, pseudofirst- order model cannot be applied to a region of high ionic strength.
<P><B>Background and Purpose</B></P><P>Alzheimer’s disease (AD) leads to cognitive dysfunction and neuronal loss, both of which can be exacerbated by seizures. For the treatment and diagnosis of AD, it is imperative to identify the cortical characteristics of comorbidities of AD such as seizures. The present study investigated the alterations in cortical volumes in patients with comorbid AD and seizures.</P><P><B>Methods</B></P><P>In this retrospective study, magnetic resonance T1-weighted brain images were collected from six patients with early AD or amnestic mild cognitive impairment without seizures (AD-No Seizure, age: 66.17 ± 4.92 years) and six individuals with seizures (AD-Seizure, age: 80.33 ± 4.63 years). The gray matter volumes estimated from the T1 images were compared between the groups using nuisance variables (e.g., age). Subsequently, a correlation analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between cortical structure and global cognitive function.</P><P><B>Results</B></P><P>AD-Seizure group showed volumetric alterations compared with AD-No Seizure group. In the volumetrically altered regions, correlation analysis revealed that the AD-Seizure group showed a positive correlation between the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score and cortical volume, with smaller volumes than the AD-No Seizure group in the right parahippocampal gyrus, left angular gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus. The AD-No Seizure group showed negative correlations with MMSE score in the volume of right inferior frontal gyrus and cerebellar culmen and a positive correlation with the volume of the left middle frontal gyrus.</P><P><B>Conclusions</B></P><P>Our findings revealed that smaller temporal region volumes are predictive of cognitive dysfunction in AD patients with seizures. Given that these temporal areas overlap with regions showing abnormal brain activities in AD patients with seizures, these results suggest synergistic effects of AD and seizures on cortical volume and cognitive function.</P>
This paper attempts to provide an explanation of the short-run monetary non-neutrality in an economy where agents have full current information and no nominal prices are set in advance. This non-neutrality arises due to the government's setting of nominal target bands. If the current money supply is near the upper bound of the band, any increase in money supply will require the monetary authority to take immediate action to reduce it. This serves to decrease the expected rate of inflation, thus increasing the demand for real balances and production. This paper also shows that if readjustments of nominal target bands are likely to occur, then the positive effect of money on output becomes attenuated. [E32, E52]
In this paper, we prove that any continuous function on a bounded closed interval of □ can be approximated by the superposition of a bounded sigmoidal function with a fixed weight. In addition, we show that any continuous function over 112 which vanishes at infinity can be approximated by the superposition of a hounded sigmoidal function with a weighted norm. Our proof is constructive.