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      • 離騷의 性格

        金學主 서울대학교 동아문화연구소 1979 東亞文化 Vol.16 No.-

        Since Ssu-ma Ch'ien eulogized Ch'u¨ Yu¨an as a great patriotic poet and his Li-Sao (Encountering Sorrow) as a song of"loyalty to his king and love to the people," from Wang Yi (Ch'u Tz'uˇ Chang Chu¨楚辭章句) to modern Chinese scholars (Ch'u Tz'uˇYen Chiu Lun Wen Chi 楚辭硏究論文集), most of the scholars have interpreted Li-Sao as a patriotic poem. But lately some scholars, such as Liao P'ing(Ch'u Tz'uˇ Chiang Yi 楚辭講義), Ho T'ian Hsing (Ch'u T'zu¨ Tzo Yu¨ Han Tai K'ao 楚辭作於漢代考), and Chu Tung Jun (Ch'u Ko and Ch'u Tz'uˇ 楚歌與楚辭, Writer of Li-Sao 離騷的作者, etc.), denying the existence of Ch'u¨ Yu¨an, contended that Li-Sao is a song of "fairy excursion."In this paper, I have examined the above mentioned two directions of interpretation of Li-Sao, and analogized it's character through the analysis of the text. For the convenience of quotation of the text, I gave numbers from 1 to 188 to every line (two phrase for one line) of Li-Sao. (2) In the text of Li-Sao, lines 17-20, 40-41, 44 and 188 directly express the poet's loyalty to his king or love to the people (or the country). But most of the general purport arrives at the despair and resentment to this world. Besides, on the lines 13-16, 19, 38-39, 53, 72-87, and 145-149, we can find a description of the conduct of great sages and tyrants. These also show that Li-Sao is a patriotic poem. On the other hand, in most of the text of Li-Sao the poet describes his visionary excursion to the fairyland and heaven. On lines 54-64, we find his desire of the long journey, and on lines 72-185, we find his three-time fairy excursions. Consequently, we can say that Li-Sao is a song of fairy excursion. (3) Of course there are far more lines which support Li-Sao as a patriotic poem or song of fairy excursion. But both of these two interpretations have a good many negative expressions in themselves. We find in them defects not sufficient to assert the character of the poem as such. So I analyzed the text various ways to obtain the clear character of it. As a result, I draw a deduction that this originated from an early shaman of Ch'u. In concluding the character of Li-Sao, most important factor is an interpretation of P'eng Hsien, which is stated in the last paragraph: "Since none is worthwhile to work with in making good government, I will go and join P'eng Hsien in the place where he abides.(旣莫足與爲美政兮, 吾將從彭咸之所居)" Wang Yi commented on P'eng Hsien as a "sage of Shang dynasty, who drowned himself because his king disregarded his advice," and the last line of Li-Sao has been taken as the poet's statement of his intention to drown himself. But it is clear that his explanation has no basis. As Ho T'ien-Hsing (at Ch'u Tz'uˇ Tzo Yi Han Tai K'ao) pointed out, it is very reasonable to explain P'eng Hsien as ancient shamans, Wu P'eng and Wu Hsien, shown in: Shang Hai Ching, and "to join P'eng Hsien" means rather the poet's, intention to devote himself to occult training as a shaman. At the beginning of Li-Sao, the poet described his family lineage because early shamans were handed down from father to son as a profession. And he introduced his name(字) as Ling Chun(靈均). When we think of Wang Yi's commentary "靈, 巫也" and other shaman's name Ling Hsiu, Ling Fen, and Ling Pao of the Ch'u Tz'uˇ, the name Ling Chu¨n bespeaks itself a name of a shaman. Before his first visionary excursion, the poet paid a visit to the spirit of Emperor Shun to get his advice, which means that Shun was one of the spirit enshrined by the poet shaman. This fact also, explains why Li-Sao has so many descriptions of loyalty to the Kingand love of the country. And most of the works of Ch'u Tz'uˇ, which recorded under the, name of Ch'u¨ Yu¨an and his student Sung Yu¨, such as Chiu-Ko, T`ian-Wen, Yuan-You, P'u-Chu¨, Chiu-Pian, Chao-Hun, and Ta-Chao preserve more obvious tinges of shaman than Li-Sao. Consequently, it might be maintained that Li-Sao is a early song of shaman, neither a patriotic poem nor a song of fairy excursion.

      • AHCISCOPUSKCI등재
      • KCI등재

        龜玆樂 關聯의 개存 硏究成果 檢討 : A Critical Review

        홍주희 한국음악사학회 2002 韓國音樂史學報 Vol.29 No.-

        In order to make a systematic approach to the study of Kuei-tzu˘ music 龜玆樂, this paper is intended to investigate the outcomes of existing studies on Kuei-tzu˘ music by Korean and Chinese scholars from the 1950s to the present. Most outcomes have been studied by Chinese musicologists including P'an Huai-su 播?素, Ch'ang Jen-hsia 常任俠, Chou Chi 周吉, Ho Ch'ang-lin 何昌林, Ch'iu Ch'iung-lin 丘璟蓀, Li Ping 呂氷 and so on. Also included are such Korean scholars as An Hwak 安廓, Lee Hye-ku [Yi Hye-gu] 李惠求, Song Bang-song [Song Pang-song] 宋芳松, Cho˘n In-p'yo˘ng 全仁平 and Hong Chu-hu˘i 洪周希, and also such Japanese musicologists as Kishibe Shigeo 岸邊成雄 and Hayashi Kenzo― 林謙三. The outcomes of existing studies on Kuei-tzu˘ music can be divided into two groups in a broad sence : the first group is the outcomes related directly with Kuei-tzu˘ music, while the other group, the outcomes related indirectly with Kuei-tzu˘ music. This paper consists of three parts : Ⅰ. Introduction, Ⅱ. The Main Issue : 1. Studies on Kuei-tzu˘ Music : 1) Studies on Kuei-tzu˘ Music in Ancient Period; Modal Theory Called We-tan-ch'i-sheng 五旦七聲 by Su Chih-p'o 蘇祗婆, Historical Change of Musical Scale, Musical Instruments, and General Approach to Kuei-tzu˘ Music, 2) Relation between Ancient Kuei-tzu˘ Music and Current Makam, 2. Studies of Indirectly Related with Kuie-tzu˘ Music : 1) Outcomes by Cultural Approach, 2) Outcomes by Iconographic Materials, 3) General Survey, Ⅲ. Conclusion. In conclusion it is pointed out that the outcomes of existing studies on Kuei-tzu˘ music by Korean scholars are very poor in comparison with those by Japanese and Chinese scholars. Translations of studies on Kuei-tzu˘ music by Kishibe Shigeo and Hayashi Kenzo― made a contribution to the study of Kuei-tzu˘ Music in Korea. The author, therefore, emphasizes that it is necessary to translate works on Kuei-tzu˘ music by Chinese scholars into Korean.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        ADGO: analysis of differentially expressed gene sets using composite GO annotation

        Nam, Dougu,Kim, Sang-Bae,Kim, Seon-Kyu,Yang, Sungjin,Kim, Seon-Young,Chu, In-Sun Oxford University Press 2006 Bioinformatics Vol.22 No.18

        <P><B>Motivation:</B> Genes are typically expressed in modular manners in biological processes. Recent studies reflect such features in analyzing gene expression patterns by directly scoring gene sets. Gene annotations have been used to define the gene sets, which have served to reveal specific biological themes from expression data. However, current annotations have limited analytical power, because they are classified by single categories providing only unary information for the gene sets.</P><P><B>Results:</B> Here we propose a method for discovering composite biological themes from expression data. We intersected two annotated gene sets from different categories of Gene Ontology (GO). We then scored the expression changes of all the single and intersected sets. In this way, we were able to uncover, for example, a gene set with the molecular function <I>F</I> and the cellular component <I>C</I> that showed significant expression change, while the changes in individual gene sets were not significant. We provided an exemplary analysis for HIV-1 immune response. In addition, we tested the method on 20 public datasets where we found many ‘filtered’ composite terms the number of which reached ∼34% (a strong criterion, 5% significance) of the number of significant unary terms on average. By using composite annotation, we can derive new and improved information about disease and biological processes from expression data.</P><P><B>Availability:</B> We provide a web application (ADGO: http://array.kobic.re.kr/ADGO) for the analysis of differentially expressed gene sets with composite GO annotations. The user can analyze Affymetrix and dual channel array (spotted cDNA and spotted oligo microarray) data for four species: human, mouse, rat and yeast.</P><P><B>Contact:</B> chu@kribb.re.kr</P><P><B>Supplementary information:</B> http://array.kobic.re.kr/ADGO</P>

      • 木花 品質形質의 組合能力分析

        崔周鎬 진주산업대학교 농업기술연구소 2002 農業技術硏究所報 Vol.15 No.-

        1999年 4月부터 2001年 12月까지 晋州産業大學校 學生實習圃場에서 木花 10개 品種을 二面 交配하여 얻은 F_(1), F_(2), 45개 組合을 材料로 하여 品質形質의 組合能力을 分析한 結果는 다음과 같다. 1. 組合能力의 分散量은 GCA 및 SCA는 全 形質에서 有意하여 組合能力은 相加的, 非相加的 效果가 함께 작용하였으나 形質에 따라 差異가 있었다. 2. GCA의 效果는 100립중. 朔當實綿重 에서는 世代에 關係없이 임성 및 Tamcot이 正의 效果를, 삭당조면증, 조면비율은 世代에 關係없이 Tamcot과 Stoneville이 正의 效果를 나타내었다. 摘採綿은 世代에 關係없이 Ouall와 제주에서 正의 效果를, 木採綿은 世代에 關係없이 임성이 높은 正의 效果를 나타내었다. 收量은 世代에 關係없이 Ouall와 제주에서 높은 正의 效果를 나타내었다. 3. SCA의 效果의 100립중에서 F_(1)은 Jackson×승주, Stoneville×제주, F_(2) 世代에서는 무안×임성 組合과 朔當實綿重의 F_(1)은 Steneville×승주, F_(2) 世代에서는 Tamcot×임성 組合과, 朔當繰綿重의 F_(1)은 Tamcot×서산·제주, F_(2) 世代에서는 Stoneville×무안, Ouall×승주의 組合에서 正의 效果가 있는 것으로 평가되었다. 繰綿比率의 F_(1)은 Stoneville×Tamcot·승주, F_(2) 世代에서는 Stoneville×무안의 組合에서 正의 效果가 있는 것으로 높게 평가되었다. 摘採綿은 F_(1)은 Jackson×Ouall, F_(2) 世代에서는 Ouall×승주의 組合에서 正의 效果가 있는 것으로 높게 평가되었다. 木採綿에서 F_(1)은 Tamcot×임성, F_(2) 世代에서는 Stoneville×무안의 組合에서 負의 效果가 있는 것으로 높게 평가되었다. 收量에서 F_(1), F_(2) 兩世代에서 Ouall ×승주 組合에서 正으로 높게 평가되었다. For this study, 45 combinations of F_(1) and F_(2) generations were bred from 10 varieties of cotton through diallel cross during the period from April to December, 1997. The combining abilities of their growth character were analyzed with the following results: 1. In the variance of combining ability, GCA and SCA were significant in all the characters. Both the additive effect and the non-additive effect were shown in the combining ability, but the difference between characters was significant. 2. In the effect analysis of GCA, Imsung and Tamcot showed a negative effect in 100-seed weight and seed cotton weight regardless of generations. In Lint weight and Lint percentag Tamcot and Stoneville showed a positive effect regardless of generations. The Picked cotton Ouall and Cheju showed negative effect regardless of generations. Stiak-cut cotton showed a positive effect in Imsung. Yield showed a highly positive effect in Oull and Cheju. 3. In SCA effect, 1000-seed weight showed a highly negative effect in F_(1) of Jackson×Imsung, Stoneville×Cheju and F_(2) Muan×Imsung combination, Seed cotton weight highly negative effect in F_(1) of stoneville×Sungju and F_(2) of Tamcot×Imsung combination, Lint weight showed a highly effect in F_(1) of Tamcot×Seosan·Cheju and F_(2) of Stoneville×Muan, Ouall×Sungju combination, Lint percentage effect height in of F_(1) of Stoneville×Tamct·Sungju and F_(2) of Stoneville×Muan Combination. width of Picked cotton showed a positive effect in F_(1) of Jackson×Ouall and F_(2) of Ouall×Sungju and according of Stalk-cut cotton shown n egative effect in F_(1) of Tamct×Imsung and F_(2) of Stoneville×Muan, Yield stowed apositved affect in F_(1) and F_(2) of Ouall×Sungju Combination.

      • 木花 收量構成形質의 遺傳分析

        崔周浩,李信雨,全鉉植,李喆浩 진주산업대학교 농업기술연구소 2005 農業技術硏究所報 Vol.18 No.-

        2001년부터 2003년까지 木花 10개 品種을 二面交配하여 얻은 F_(1), F_(2) 45개 組合을 재료로 生育形質의 交配集團에 따른 遺傳分析한 結果를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 1. 각 형질에 대한 분산분석 결과는 전형질에서 고도의 유의성을 나타내었다. 2. 유전자의 상가적효과의 값은 우성효과의 값보다 높게 나타났고, F_(1)세대의 株當□數에서 가장 높았으며, 百粒重은 F_(2)세대에서 오히려 높아 세대간에는 일정한 경향을 보이지 않았다. 3. 유전력은 섬유장을 제외한 전 형질에서 0,80이상으로 평가되었고, 그 중 섬도는 F_(1)세대에서 0.97로 조사된 형질 중 가장 높았다. The quantitative inheritance of some yield characters in Gosyium spp was carried out by means of a 10×10 diallel cross. This study was genetically analyzed through diallel cross population among 10 different cultivars of cotton (Gosyium spp) at an experimental field in Jinju National University. According to research from April 2001 to December 2003, the results of genetic analysis were summarized as follow: 1. The high significance was observed from the genetic variance analysis in the all examined characters. 2. In the component of genetic variance analysis, additive effects were relatively higher than dominant effects. The number of boll in F_(1) generation was higher than F_(2), whereas no significant difference was seen in the dominance degree and gene arrangement between F_(1) and F_(2) generations because 100 seeds weight in F_(2) generation was much higher F_(1). 3. The progeny of F_(1) heritability was found to exceed a suggested minimum of 0.80 excepting fiber length. The heritability of F_(1) in fiber fineness was 0.97 relatively higher than other all examined characters.

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