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The inhibitory activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase and the influence of cholesterol reduction were studied to investigate the effects of bamboo oil on lipid metabolism. The inhibitory activity ofHMG-CoA reductase using Phyllostachys bambusoides oil was the highest among the various bamboo oils tested. The inhibition rate of HMG-CoA reductase increased from 7.3 to 89.9% when P. bambusoides oil concentration was increased from 10 to 90 mL/mL. However, when over 110 mL/mL of bamboo oil was used, it was not increased. The total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in blood decreased with the increase of bamboo oil concentration. Especially, when bamboo oil concentration increased from 2.0 to 8.0%, the total cholesterol concentration decreased from 139.6 to 80.4 mg/dL, which was a decrease of about 45% compared to the control. However, the phospholipid concentration was an increase of about 30% compared to the control. HDL cholesterol concentration increased with the increase of bamboo oil concentration. In particular, when bamboo oil increased from 2 to 8.0%, it was increased from 25.7 to 40.2%,which was an increase of about 89% compared to the control. These results suggest that bamboo oil is very effective at improving lipid metabolism and preventing hypercholesterolemia in high-cholesterol-fed rats. 2009 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.