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Objectives : The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of fire needling and warm needling for De Quervain Syndrome by reviewing clinical studies for recent 10 years. Methods : Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, and case series containing more than 20 cases about fire needling and warm needling for De Quervain Syndrome published since 2011 were searched through four foreign online databases (CNKI, Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library) and five Korean online databases (OASIS, Science ON, DBPIA, KISS, RISS). The number and characteristics of participants, treatment points and main treatment methods involving other combination treatments, treatment cycle or total periods of treatments, evaluation indices, efficacy, and adverse events were analyzed. Risk of bias of included randomized clinical trials was assessed using a revised tool for assessing risk of bias in randomized trials (RoB 2). Results : A total of 6 randomized clinical trials and 2 case series involving 471 participants were included. Tender point or ‘Ashi point’ was the most commonly used treatment point, followed by LU4. Treatment frequency ranged from once a day to once a week. One to three outcome measures were used to evaluate the results of the studies, with the efficacy rate the most frequently used, followed by visual analogue scale. Overall risk of bias of all included randomized clinical trials was judged to have some concerns. Conclusions : All selected studies showed that fire needling and warm needling treatments for De Quervain syndrome were more effective than other clinical methods or acupuncture treatments. However, as the number of clinical studies is still too small and the risk of bias of the studies is not low, it is believed that more systematic and objective studies should be conducted.
A new secret-key-sharing cryptosystem using optical phase-shifting digital holography is proposed. The proposed secret-key-sharing algorithm is based on the Diffie-Hellman key-exchange protocol, which is modified to an optical cipher system implemented by a two-step quadrature phase-shifting digital holographic encryption method using orthogonal polarization. Two unknown users’ private keys are encrypted by two-step phase-shifting digital holography and are changed into three digital-hologram ciphers, which are stored by computer and are opened to a public communication network for secret-key-sharing. Two-step phase-shifting digital holograms are acquired by applying a phase step of 0 or π/2 in the reference beam’s path. The encrypted digital hologram in the optical setup is a Fourier-transform hologram, and is recorded on CCDs with 256 quantized gray-level intensities. The digital hologram shows an analog-type noise-like randomized cipher with a two-dimensional array, which has a stronger security level than conventional electronic cryptography, due to the complexity of optical encryption, and protects against the possibility of a replay attack. Decryption with three encrypted digital holograms generates the same shared secret key for each user. Schematically, the proposed optical configuration has the advantage of producing a kind of double-key encryption, which can enhance security strength compared to the conventional Diffie-Hellman key-exchange protocol. Another advantage of the proposed secret-key-sharing cryptosystem is that it is free to change each user’s private key in generating the public keys at any time. The proposed method is very effective cryptography when applied to a secret-key-exchange cryptosystem with high security strength.
Many studies have been performed to predict a reliable and accurate stress-range distribution and fatigue damage regarding the Gaussian wide-band stress response due to multi-peak waves and multiple dynamic loads. So far, most of the approximation models provide slightly inaccurate results in comparison with the rain-flow counting method as an exact solution. A step-by-step study was carried out to develop new approximate spectral moments that are close to the rain-flow counting moment, which can be used for the development of a fatigue damage model. Using the special parameters and bandwidth parameters, four kinds of parameter-based combinations were constructed and estimated using the R-squared values from regression analysis. Based on the results, four candidate empirical formulas were determined and compared with the rain-flow counting moment, probability density function, and root mean square (RMS) value for relative distance. The new approximate spectral moments were finally decided through comparison studies of eight response spectra. The new spectral moments presented in this study could play an important role in improving the accuracy of fatigue damage model development. The present study shows that the new approximate moment is a very important variable for the enhancement of Gaussian wide-band fatigue damage assessment.
A new optical asymmetric cryptosystem is proposed by modifying the asymmetric RSA public-key protocol required in a cryptosystem. The proposed asymmetric public-key algorithm can be optically implemented by combining a two-step quadrature phase-shifting digital holographic encryption method with the modified RSA public-key algorithm; then two pairs of public-private keys are used to encrypt and decrypt the plaintext. Public keys and ciphertexts are digital holograms that are Fourier-transform holograms, and are recorded on CCDs with 256-gray-level quantized intensities in the optical architecture. The plaintext can only be decrypted by the private keys, which are acquired by the corresponding asymmetric publickey-generation algorithm. Schematically, the proposed optical architecture has the advantage of producing a complicated, asymmetric public-key cryptosystem that can enhance security strength compared to the conventional electronic RSA public-key cryptosystem. Numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method, by evaluating decryption performance and analysis. The proposed method shows feasibility for application to an asymmetric public-key cryptosystem.
본 논문은 A/O광산관기의 실시간 신호 처리에 대하여 이론적으로 분석하고 실험을 통하여 시간적으로 두 신호의 상관함수를 얻는 방법을 연구하였다. 강도변조모드로 동작하는 본 광상관기는 종래의 광상관기에 비해 SNR을 높일 수 있었고 진폭변조모드로 동작하는 기존의 광상관기에 비해 시스템 구성이 간단하고 신호검출이 용이함을 보였다. The objective of this paper lies in presenting in theory an interpretation of how signals are detected from the real-time A/O correlator, and scrutinize by experimental processes, thereby to devise a method by which correlation function can be detected in a favorable way in time. An A/O system for real-time correlation function of two signals has been constructed. This optical correlator when at work in intensity modulation mode by acousto- optic device renders higher output signal to noise ration, as compared with the traditional optical signal detection, has simple system as compared with existing optical correlator in amplitude modulation mode.
A new optical one-time password (OTP) authentication method using digital holography is proposed,which enhances security strength in the authentication system. A challenge-response optical OTP algorithmbased on two-factor authentication is presented using two-step phase-shifting digital holography, andtwo-way authentication is also performed using challenge-response handshake in both directions. Identification(ID), password (PW), and OTP are encrypted with a shared key by applying phase-shifting digital holography,and these encrypted pieces of information are verified by each party by means of the shared key. Theencrypted digital holograms are obtained by Fourier-transform holography and are recorded on a CCDwith 256 quantized gray-level intensities. Because the intensity pattern of such an encrypted digitalhologram is distributed randomly, it guards against a replay attack and results in higher security level. The proposed method has advantages, in that it does not require a time-synchronized OTP, and can beapplied to various authentication applications. Computer experiments show that the proposed method isfeasible for high-security OTP authentication.
A novel key exchange cryptographic method utilizing biometric finger print as a user’s private key is proposed. Eachunknown users’ finger print is encrypted by optical phase-shifting interferometry principle and is changed into twociphers, which are exchanged with the other party over a public communication network for secret key sharing. Thetransmitted ciphers generate a complex hologram, which is used to calculate a shared secret key for each user. Theproposed method provides high security when applied to a secret key sharing encryption system. 본 논문은 사용자의 개인키로써 생체 지문을 사용하는 새로운 개인키 교환 암호화 방법을 제안한다. 각각의 사용자의 지문은 광학적 위상천이 간섭 원리에 의해 암호화되어 두 개의 암호문으로 변환되고, 이것은 비밀키 공유를 위해 공중 통신망을통하여 상대방 사용자와 교환된다. 전송된 암호문은 복소 홀로그램을 생성하고, 이는 각각의 사용자에게 공유비밀키를 계산하는데 사용된다. 제안한 방법은 비밀키 공유 암호화 시스템에 적용하였을 때 매우 높은 보안을 제공할 것이다.