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One of the factors influencing the climate around Korea is the oceanic-atmospheric variability in the tropical region between the eastern Indian and the western Pacific Oceans. Lack of knowledge about the air-sea interaction in the tropical Indo-Pacific region continues to make it problematic forecasting the ocean climate in the East Asia. The ‘Tropical Indo-Pacific water transport and ecosystem monitoring EXperiment (TIPEX)’ is a program for monitoring the ocean circulation variability between Pacific and Indian Oceans and for improving the accuracy of future climate forecasting. The main goal of the TIPEX program is to quantify the climate and ocean circulation change between the Indian and the Pacific Oceans. The contents of the program are 1) to observe the mixing process of different water masses and water transport in the eastern Indian and the western Pacific, 2) to understand the large-scale oceanic-climatic variation including El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)/Warm Pool/Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)/Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), and 3) to monitor the biogeochemical processes, material flux, and biological changes due to the climate change. In order to effectively carry out the monitoring program, close international cooperation and the proper co-work sharing of tasks between China, Japan, Indonesia, and India as well as USA is required.
The interannual variability of the water masses was analyzed from the CTD data measured in the tropical northwestern Pacific from 2006 to 2014. There are two typical water masses NPTW and NPIW that reveal the interannual variability in the survey area, in addition to two other water masses; the surface water mass TSW with a large seasonal variability and the deep water mass AACDW with a constant temperature-salinity characteristic at the depths deeper than 2,000 meters. In 2012 and 2014 NPTW was the most widely extended horizontally and thicker than 100 meters vertically, which was found over the entire survey area. However, NPTW was reduced and became much narrower in 2009 than in the other years. NPIW seemed to expand southwards from the north of 21˚N to 15oN in 2008 and in 2012, which showed the salinity minimum in 2013 (< 34.15 psu). The sea surface height estimated by Absolute Dynamic Topography (ADT) approximately along 135˚E section showed the high peaks (> 1.45 dyn•m) between 16˚N and 18˚N during the periods between 2007 and 2009 and between 2012 and 2013; the former peak lasted wider and longer in latitude and time (about three times) than the latter. The vertical section of the geostrophic currents in the upper 1,000 meters shows that there was a mesoscale pattern of repeated eastward and westward flows a few times in some years (2010 and 2014), which seemed to disappear in some other years (2008 and 2012); the former was closely related to the mesoscale eddies and the latter implied the pattern with the permanent currents. The persistent eastward flow between 17oN and 19oN seems to be related to the Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC).
This study documents KORDI's experience of successfully deploying a deep ocean buoy for monitoring oceanic and atmospheric variabilities in the tropical western Pacific Ocea nsince May 2010. The primary focus of this study was to compare TRITON (big and old type) with m-TRITON (smaller and new type) buoys within the JAMSTEC's buoy management system. The objective of operating a KORDI buoy is to ascertain oceanic variability in the tropical western Pacific. We adopted a slack-line mooring type to observe water temperatures at six layers from surface to 400 m depth. However we could not acquire satisfactory results due to lack of expertise in buoy management system. A new KORDI buoy has been developing which has been modified from both buoys and ARGOS-3 satellite system and a slack-type mooring line.
To understand the vertical structure of ocean currents from raw data observed by lowered-ADCP (LADCP) these data require post-processing. Data were processed using Krahman's version 10.8 processing software based on Matlab. It is estimated the influence of auxiliary data affecting the processed current structure. The bottom-tracked velocities and the GPS information significantly contribute the offset on reference velocities in the bottom layer and barotropic ones in the middle layer respectively. Good quality data can be obtained when LADCP is least tilted in pitch and roll during observation. In situ application of LADCP to the (northward) volume transports of Kuroshio in the East China Sea proved to be 24.8. Sv (= 1*10⁶ m³s⁻¹) in October 2007 and 28.2 Sv in June 2008 respectively. The volume transport is relatively large over the continental slope when compared to the shelf or the deep sea.
In order to understand the variation of ENSO-related oceanic environments in the tropical and North Pacific Ocean, spatio-temporal variations of sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) and sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) are analyzed from distributions of complex empirical orthogonal functions (CEOF). Correlations among warm pool variation, southern oscillation index, and ocean surface currents were also examined with respect to interannual variability of the warm pool in western tropical Pacific. Spatio-temporal distributions of the first CEOF modes for SSTA and SSHA indicate that their variabilities are associated with ENSO events, which have a variance over 30% in the North Pacific. The primary reasons for their variabilities are different; SST is predominantly influenced by the change of barrier layer thickness, while SSH fluctuates with the same phase as propagation of an ENSO episode in the zonal direction. Horizontal boundary of warm pool area, which normally centered around 149˚E in the tropics, seemed to be expanded to the middle and eastern tropical regions by strong zonal currents through the mature phase of an ENSO episode.
In order to investigate seasonal variations of the physical environments in the region of Jinhae Bay-Nakdongpo, we carried out hydrographic surveys from November 2000 to November 2001. Horizontal and vertical distribution of salinity and temperature shows large seasonal variations. Water column is well mixed in winter and stratified in summer. Low-salinity water is distributed in the form of patches because of the drainage control at the Nakdong River. Seasonal variations in the sea near Gadeok-Sudo are affected by topography, river discharge and tidal current. Currents have been measured using a bottom mounted ADCP and DCM12 between November 2000 and August 2001 in the Gadeok-Sudo. The current in the Gadeok-Sudo shows a distinct two-layer structure with reversed current. Low-pass filtered time series of wind, sea elevation and current are coherent for the period of 1-2 days and are attributed to Ekman-like dynamics. Spatial and temporal circulation pattern shows a slight different. The subtidal current in Jinhae Bay goes northward, however is reversed in the Gadeok-Sudo mouth.