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With the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), nations' engagement with sustainability has differed considerably on the basis of their socio-political priorities. Since reviewing research trends is one way of getting a broad understanding about the value attached to an internationally prioritized issue, such as Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), this study aims to see the coherence and effectiveness of the DESD on the Turkish stakeholders' side and portrays how such a global issue is addressed in educational research by local actors. The study employed a mixed-method design through a two-step process: a quantitative investigation through numbers to assess the level and direction of the attention paid to ESD; and a qualitative examination through content and collocation analyses to identify key dimensions and prevalent themes. As the sample, the papers published with a focus on ESD themes between the years 2005 and 2014 in three high-impact educational journals in Turkey were included. The data analyses were carried out through: (a) descriptive statistics by use of frequency distribution tables and percentages; (b) a content analysis employed with thematic coding and categorization and (c) a collocation analysis done by means of the software AntConc. The most prevailing themes emerging from the publications were on environmentalism; human values; gender equality; democratic values; multiculturalism; interculturality; morals and character education; student dropouts and absenteeism; life-long learning; community service and responsibility; human rights; children's rights; citizenship and peace education. All those themes gave crucial hints about the local concerns and socio-cultural priorities of the case of Turkey.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of brackets and microleakage of a tooth-adhesive-bracket complex bonded with a direct and an indirect bonding technique after thermocycling. Methods: Fifty non-carious human premolars were divided into two equal groups. In the direct bonding group a light-cured adhesive and a primer (Transbond XT) was used. In the indirect-bonding group, a light-cured adhesive (Transbond XT) and chemical-cured primer (Sondhi Rapid Set) were used. After polymerization, the teeth were kept in distilled water for 24 hours and thereafter subjected to thermal cycling (500 cycles). For the microleakage evaluation, 10 teeth from each group were further sealed with nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours, and examined under a stereomicroscope. Fifteen teeth from each group were used for SBS testing with the universal testing machine and adhesive remnant index (ARI) evaluation. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test. Results: There were no statistical differences on SBS and microleakage between the two bonding techniques. The indirect bonding group had a significantly lower ARI score. Bracket failures were obtained between enamel-resin interfaces. Conclusions: The type of bonding technique did not significantly affect the amount of microleakage and SBS.
Let 1 2 v = v o v be a valuation of a field K with rankv = 2 and v be the extension of v to the algebraic closure K of K . Let (L, z) /(K,v) be a finite extension of valued fields where 1 2 z = z o z be the extension of v to field L . In this paper it is shown that, if (L, z) /(K,v) be a tame extension then finite extensions of valued fields ( , ) /( , ) 1 1 L z K v and ( , ) /( , ) 1 2 1 2 k z k v z v are tame extensions. Also Krasner's constant of an element α ∈ K \ K is obtained as ( ) ( ( ), ( * ))( , ) ( , 1 ) ( 1 , 2 )α α α K v K v kv v w = w w and the other constants of α are obtained as ( ) ( ( ), ( * ))( , ) ( , 1 ) ( 1 , 2 )α α α K v K v kv v Δ = Δ Δ and ( ) ( ( ), ( * ))
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The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of high post-mortem temperature application on development of pale, soft, exudative (PSE) turkey meat characteristics in terms of local slaughter conditions. Within this scope, it was targeted to obtain PSE-like muscles benefiting from different post-mortem temperature applications. Immediately after slaughter, turkey Pectoralis major (n=15) muscles were kept at various post-mortem temperatures (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40°C) for 5 h. pH values of 40°C treatment were lower than four other treatments (p<0.05). L* values, drip loss, cook loss, and thawing loss of 40°C group were higher than the other groups (p<0.05). Napole yield of 40°C treatment indicated that high post-mortem temperature decreases brine uptake. Protein solubility of 40°C group was lower than 0°C group (p<0.05). Expressible moisture did not differ between 0 and 40°C treatments. Hardness, gumminess and chewiness of 40°C treatment were higher than 0°C treatment. The results of this research showed that high post-mortem temperature treatment induced development of PSE-like turkey meat, with lower pH, paler color, higher technological and storage losses, and reduced protein solubility and texture.
The infusions and extracts obtained from leaves with flowers, fruit peel, and seed from hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Family Rosaceae) were subjected to evaluation as potential sources of antioxidant phytochemicals on the basis of their total content of phenolics, levels of phenolic acids, and in vitro antiradical activity. Total phenolic content of extracts was determined using the modified Folin–Ciocalteau method. Antioxidant activity was determined for phenolic extracts by a method involving the use of the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Phenolic acids containing extracts and infusions from hawthorn leaves, fruit peel, and seeds were obtained using different polarity solvents and separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, which enabled improved separation by the use of a C18 column, an acidic mobile phase, and gradient elusion. The highest total phenolic content (343.54 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g) and the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity as the inhibition percentage (60.36%) were obtained in ethyl acetate extract from hawthorn leaves with flower. Also, the highest phenolic acid content was measured in the extracts of hawthorn leaves with flowers: protocathechuic (108–128 mg/100 g), p-hydroxy benzoic (141–468 mg/100 g), caffeic (137–3,580 mg/100 g), chlorogenic (925–4,637 mg/100 g), ferulic (3,363–3,462 mg/100 g), vanillic (214 mg/100 g), and syringic (126 mg/100 g) acids. The results indicate that hawthorn is a promising plant because of its high antioxidant activity.
Sweet cherry is an important fruit crop with increasingeconomical value in Turkey and the world. A numberof viruses cause diseases and economical losses in sweetcherry. Prune dwarf virus (PDV), is one of the mostcommon viruses of stone fruits including sweet cherryin the world. In this study, PDV was detected from316 of 521 sweet cherry samples collected from 142orchards in 10 districts of Isparta province of Turkeyby double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbentassay (DAS-ELISA). The presence of PDV inELISA positive samples was confirmed in 37 isolates byreverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR)method. A genomic region of 862 bp containingthe coat protein (CP) gene of PDV was re-amplifiedfrom 21 selected isolates by RT-PCR. Amplified DNAfragments of these isolates were purified and sequencedfor molecular characterization and determining geneticdiversity of PDV. Sequence comparisons showed 84-99% to 81-100% sequence identity at nucleotide andamino acid level, respectively, of the CP genes of PDVisolates from Isparta and other parts of the world. Phylogeneticanalyses of the CP genes of PDV isolates fromdifferent geographical origins and diverse hosts revealedthat PDV isolates formed different phylogeneticgroups. While isolates were not grouped solely basedon their geographical origins or hosts, some associationbetween phylogenetic groups and geographical originsor hosts were observed.
A module M is called cofinitely closed weak δ-supplemented (briey δ-ccws-module) if for any cofinite closed submodule N of M has a weak δ-supplement in M: In this paper we investigate the basic properties of δ-ccws modules. In the light of this study, we can list the main facts obtained as following: (1) Any cofinite closed direct summand of a δ-ccws module is also a δ-ccws module; (2) Let R be a left δ-V -ring. Then R is a δ-ccws module iff R is a ccws-module iff R is extending; (3) Any nonsingular homomorphic image of a δ-ccws-module is also a δ-ccws-module; (4) We characterize nonsingular δ-V -rings in which all nonsingular modules are δ-ccws.