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Objective: Unlike other soluble receptors, the soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R) cooperates with IL-6 to activate gp130 of effector cell. As the IL-6 and sIL-6R are important in the rheumatoid disease, this study was designed to measure concentration of IL-6 and sIL-6R in synovium and synovial fluid of the degenerative arthritis. Methods: The synovium and synovial fluid were obtained during total knee replacement arthroplasty. The synovium was taken from eleven patients, and synovial fluid taken from sixteen patients. Same patients between two groups were seven. Tissue cultures of the synovial tissues were done with 10% FBS for 72 hours. After irrigation, thery were incubated for 48 hours without FBS, and the culture media and the synovial fluid were collected after centrifuged at 2500rpm for 10 minutes. The level of IL-6 and sIL-6R were measured by quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results: In the synovium, the IL-6 level was 5.1±0.12ng/ml, and the sIL-6R level was 0.41±0.25ng/ml. In the synovial fluid, the IL-6 level was 0.09± 0.15ng/ml, and the sIL-6R level was 10.37±3.28ng/ml. These results show that IL-6 concentration was measured highly in two groups, especially in synovium (sixty times), and the sIL-6R concentration was measured significantly high in synovial fluid (twenty-five times). Conclusion: The IL-6 and sIL-6R were elevated in degenerative arthrits. We confirmed the source of IL-6 was synovium (very high in synovial tissue culture media), but we need further study for the source of sIL-6R as it was remarkably elevated as IL-6 and its level was lower than serum.
It is important how the leader leads the organizational members with leadershp appropriate to environment changes as the leader has great influence on the management of hospital organization. These data were collected from the questionnaire surveyed, from February 14 through February 28, 2003, to 218 people among those in the field of doctorship, management administration, nursing, technology, medical engineering, management engineering, and general affairs, working for three hospitals under S medical foundation in Pusan. The principal findings of this research are as below : 1. Type of leadershp and job satisfaction had positive correlation in terms of both transformational and transactional leadershp, with former having more relation than the latter. 2. Type of leadership and organizational commitment had positive correlation in terms of intellectual stimulus and situational rewards, having little relation statistically. 3. Type of leadership and turnover intentions had negative correlation only in individual consideration, situational rewards, and exceptional management, showing that transactional leadership had more relation than transformational leadership. 4. In terms of leadership and its effect on the organizational performance and turnover intentions, transformational leadership had more correlation than transactional leadership. But transactional leadership also turned out to have effect on organizational performance. When transformational leadership used, turnover intentions were lower than when transactional leadership used. However, both transformational and transactional Ieadership had negative correlation to turnover intentions. 5. Effect that type of leadership according to job classification, status, age, and academic carer has on organizational performance and turnover intentions was differed by those factors; especially, in the occupation of doctor, both transformational and transactional leadership had positive correlation to turnover intentions. 6. Regression analysis on the factors of organizational performance and turnover intentions showed that higher age had positive correlation to the organizational performance in terms of socio-demographical features and that the more ieadershp was used for charismatic and situational rewards and the less leadership was used for intellectual stimuli, the higher organizational performance was likely. a decisive factor of organizational members attitude and motivation.a decisive factor of organizational members attitude and motivation.In short, hospital operators and managers should examine each manager s qualification, type, and style of leadership in the hospital organization, and they must develop lasting programs for effective education and training for developing characteristics of leadership are in needed to have managers with appropriate managerial mind to respective post and status. It should be kept in mind that manager s leadership especially has great effect on members goal-setting, goal-achievement, organizational performance, and turnover intentions as it is a decisive factor of organizational members attitude and motivation.
Purpose: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of intramedullary nailing(IM nailing) between using radiolucent plane table in lateral position and using fracture table in supine position for femoral shaft fractures. Material & method: Consecutive 62 cases of the fresh fractures of femoral shaft treated with intramedullary nailing were divided into 2 groups; 31 cases on the fracture tables and the other 31 cases with the lateral position on the radiolucent plane table, and we analysed the difference the length of anesthetic time, preparation and draping time, operative time, postoperative complications between the two groups. Result: There was statistically significant decrease in the length of anesthetic time, operative time in the former group, but no difference in the postoperative complication(Wilcoxon test). Conclusion: Lateral position on radiolucent plane table with the traction device for intramedullary nailing for femoral shaft fracture considered to be generally accepted not only to the limited cases which fracture tables are not available but also to general cases.