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본 연구는 유아의 친사회적행동의 중요성을 인식하고, 일생동안 기본 생활습관이 형성되며 발달하는 유아기에 유아 교육기관에서 다례교육 프로그램을 개발하고 활용하여 유아들의 친사회적 행동이 일어날 수 있는 다례교육을 실시하고 그 결과를 검증하는 것을 목적으로 하였다. 연구의 대상은 강동구에 위치하고 있는 K 유치원에 다니는 유아 90명과 중구에 위치 하고 있는 H유치원에 다니는 유아 90명이다. 이들의 가정의 경제 상태는 중류 정도이다. 분석결과 집단별 유아의 친사회적 태도의 변화를 분석해 본 결과, 유아다례교육이 유아의 친사회적 행동에 긍정적인 변화에 효과가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 다례 교육이 유아들의 기본 생활 습관과 친사회적 행동 및 인성 교육을 도모할 수 있는 유용한 교육적 활동임을 시사한 것이다. This study was designed to recognize the importance of prosocial behavior, aimed at developing and utilizing a tea ceremony education program to foster prosocial behavior in children to be used in pre-school during early childhood when basic behavioral patterns are established. The sample was composed of 90 children from K pre-school located in GangDong-Gu and 90 children from K pre-school located in Jung-Gu. Their ages varied from 3 to 5 years old and the family's financial position was approximately middle class. The results were as follows, the change in children's prosocial behavior according to the group showed that childhood tea ceremony education through the tea ceremony education program affected the improvement in children's prosocial behavior. This suggests that childhood tea ceremony education are useful for improving children's basic habits and prosocial behavior, as well as character education.
One of the causes of misogyny in medieval Europe was a viewpoint of women as the daughters of Eve who seduced a man to be decadent. The negative ideas about women were formed into misogyny and maintained throughout the Middle Ages. Misogyny was more intensified among the religious men and the Church leaders around the twelfth century. Ironically, the cult of women also spread among medieval men in the same period and the objects of the cult of women were limited to the rich aristocratic and upper class women. Then how and why did misogyny and the cult of women ambivalently exist? Above all, the immediate reason for the ambiguous attitudes toward women in medieval Europe can be seen in the structural or institutional changes around the eleventh century. For instance, a lot of medieval men and women were estranged from inheritance and marriage by primogeniture. Medieval men`s sexual desires were suppressed by a series of religious regulations such as the Gregorian reform. After the establishment of primogeniture, medieval men, segregated from inheritance of titles and lands, became priests and knights that composed a new rising class. The intensified misogyny as well as the cult of women was a by-product in the process of these medieval men to join the mainstream ruling class. Medieval men who wanted to rise as clergymen saw the religious women in rivalry for leadership through the eyes of distrust and aversion. The poor wandering knights eager for money and lands looked for rich heiresses to marry by admiring women with much adoration. Therefore, the double attitudes toward medieval women were a strategic difference between the priests and knights to rise in the world rather than a contradiction. In this process, it was women that were thoroughly estranged and discriminated from their communities. However, medieval women resisted in their own ways rather than helplessly succumb to the male dominance. Some women rejected traditional ways of living through marriage and childbearing by pursuing independent life. A number of women chose to become religious women by joining religious houses and the beguines, creating their new identities by showing their ardent faith. Women`s religious fervor around the twelfth century was truly encouraged by the cult of Virgin Mary, but partly driven by their dissatisfaction with the religious and social systems ruled by men. The evidence of medieval women`s resistance against male domination and their struggles with men for religious leadership can be found in that substantial number of women joined the Waldensians and Cathars that allowed them to preach. In fact, some of them preached as clergies. Some religious women even tried to prove their faith equal to that of men through their extreme asceticism like fasting. Medieval women also pursued economic independence by engaging in commerce and handicrafts, rendering aid to the poor in charity. Of course, it is hard to say that there existed feminists who worked for women`s rights in a modern standard. However, it is certain that a lot of women struggled to give their own voice in a male dominated society, endeavoring to show their capabilities as an equal member of the Christianity.
The influence of Renaissance humanism was the pivotal basis for the growth of women`s education in 16th-century Tudor England. In particular, the educational philosophy of Thomas More stimulated the development of women`s humanist education. Many Tudor parents began to educate their daughters by following the example of More who educated his daughters by the influence of Plato that inspired the equal education between men and women. According to this intellectual milieu, many royal women and upper-class women began to learn all liberal arts and languages such as Latin, Greek, and other foreign languages. As a result, all the Tudor princesses, Mary, Elizabeth and Jane Grey, were well trained by their humanist education under the supervision and encouragement of their royal parents. Like the Tudor royal family, many aristocratic families also educated their daughters by the high standard of humanist education of their time. Also some ambitious parents from the gentry educated their daughters in order to enhance their social status and political influence as a rising elite group. Especially the examples of the Cooke daughters show the importance of women`s education in creating a new network of politically influential families in the Elizabethan age. However, Tudor women`s education had its limitations. Although there was an extraordinary boom of women`s humanist education and a galaxy of learned women appeared, it was short-lived and exclusively limited to the upper-class women. The education of middle- and lower-class women still lagged behind. To some extent, education helped to preserve some social privileges and status quo for the upper-class women, but they could not overcome the social and legal barriers against the female gender regardless of their intelligence. Nevertheless, women`s humanist education in Tudor England is significant in that Queen Elizabeth`s successful rule as a single woman shows a distinctive example of the crucial effect of her education in polishing her intelligence and strategies as a monarch.