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우리나라에서의 호구통계작성제도는 오래전부터 운영되고 있었다. 현존하는 기록으로는 통일 신라시대의 촌적제도, 고려, 조선시대의 호구성적 등으로부터의 자료에서 찾아볼 수 있다. 당시 이러한 호구성적제도는 순수한 통계작성목적보다는 징병, 요역, 세금부과, 신분유지 등의 목적으로 이루어지게 된것이다. 이러한 호구성적제도로부터 작성된 호구통계는 완전성 및 정확성의 측면에서 다소 호구의 누락등 오차가 있는것으로 추정된다. 따라서 정확한 호구통계파악을 위하여 1896.9.1자로 호구조사 규칙이 제정되었고, 1909년에는 민적법이, 1925년에는 인구센서스가 도입되어 호구통계를 작성할수 있는 제도가 세분되었다. 오늘날 통계의날 기념일을 매년 9월1일로 정한것도 이와같은 근거 때문이다. 이와 같은 제도는 1960년대 초 호적법, 주민등록법의 전면적인 개정으로 정도 높은 호구 통계를 작성하는데까지 이어졌다. The historical study reveals that our ancestors had maintained a system which could produce data on the number of population and households as well as on their characteristics. For example, such data on age structure of the population, number of births, number of deaths by age & sex, number of in & out migrants were found in an historical document for the year 755. The main purposes of maintaining the system at that time were taxation and conscription. As the system evolves, another function of identifying the legal status of people was also added. Looking into the figures for those days reveals that ommission rates of the number of population and households were high. Thus, in an effort to obtain a reliable data, the annual population survey system was introduced as of 1 September 1896. This date is now cerebrated as the Statistics Day. Since then, the survey system has been diversified. At the present time, there are three major data sources which produce the statistics on population and households: Civil Registration System (vital statistics), Resident Registratiton System (migration statistics) and Population Census. However, these three systems are found to have some problems to produce the accurate data. There are some inherent problems in the registration systems such as problems in its coverage, accuracies in contents and timeliness in reporting the vital events and publishing the results. The population census has also non-sampling errors such as errors in coverage, response and non-response. Apart from the above mentioned problems, there are also conflicting problems arised from having different three data source. We can find some overlapping problems in laws and difficulties in comparative studies between regions. In the future, these problems should be taken into consideration for the improvement of the quality of statistics on population and households.
1960년 이래 한국사회는 빠른 속도로 인구변천을 경험했다. 인구변천으로 인한 인구구조의 변화는 한국사회의 전반적인 현상이기는 하지만, 특히 이 기간중 많은 인구를 도시로 내보내지 않으면 안되었던 농촌지역에서 그 변화의 폭이 더욱 클 수밖에 없다. 이와 같은 관점에서 이 연구는 주로 최근 농촌사회에서 관찰되는 인구구조의 왜곡현상이 주로 농촌-도시로의 인구이동에 원인이 있으며, 지역단위별로 차별적인 영향을 받을 것이라는 점에 착안하여 농촌의 지역단위별 인구특성에 따른 인구분포의 변화를 비교분석하는 데 초점을 두었다. 이 연구결과 밝혀진 결과를 종합해 보면 농촌은 각 지역단위(군)별로 인구구조상의 격차가 매우 크다는 것이 확인되었다. 따라서 각 지역단위별 인구구조의 변화로 예상되는 농촌의 문제는 군부나 면부의 총괄분석을 통해 알려진 농촌 문제보다 각 지역단위별로 분석할 때 알 수 있는 농촌문제가 훨씬 더 심각함을 알 수 있었다. 이 결과는 농촌을 위한 정책수립 과정에서 지역단위별로 특수성이 고려될 수 있어야 한다는 점을 말해준다. There was a rapid population change accompanied with changes in population structure recently in Korea. The changes were nationwide though greater in rural, where the population decreased steeply, through the internal migration from rural to urban. There, in the structure of Gun's population, severely distorted features have been shown in the study. Also, the structure differ greatly by Gun. It indicated that the rural problems were much more serious than anticipated when analyzed generally. It tells us that we should consider the problems related with different population structure in developing the programs for the rural.
The urban population in Asia more than doubled between 1960 and 1985, growing by 3.0 percent per annum on average. Yet during that period, the proportion of the total population living in urban areas increased only from 21 to 27 percent. This seeming paradox is explained by the relatively high rates of rural population growth in Asia, which averaged 1.8 percent over the same period. The Republic of Korea has experienced the most rapid rate of urbanization in Asia during the past century. The proportion urban jumped from 28 percent in 1960 to 65 percent in 1985. There is a clear association between economic growth and the pace of urbanization in Asia. Currently natural increase accounts for about 60 percent of urban growth, but the speed of urbanization is projected to increase after 1990, and migration, reclassification and annexation will comprise about half of urban growth, Seoul is currently the fourth largest urban agglomeration in Asia, and its population is projected to be over 13 million by the end of the century. It is argued that policies to deconcentrate urban population will not be generally successful in Asia and that governments should attempt to manage the growth of large metropolitan areas more efficiently.
Ascertaining the actual growth rate of the population is an issue that has generated a lot of arguments amongst various scholars in the process of determining the actual census count. As such, this has had a pronounced effect in the determination of the actual growth rates for different urban populations in the country. But the effect centres much when it comes to accurately determining the major components or the factors contributing to the rapid growth of urban populations. The problem of rapid population growth centres much on its effects on the available basic social services and amenities provided for the people in these areas. Factors such as levels of medical knowledge and services, nutrition, quantity and quality of housing etc. to some extent influence the quality and duration of lives of the people. As such, their importance cannot be overemphasized when dealing with the issue of population growth. The study aims to examine the rate of population growth in the Federal Capital City, Abuja with respect to the available public provision of basic social services among other objectives. The findings from the data obtained from the Population Survey conducted in the city in 1985 show that the health care facilities available in the capital city are grossly inadequate to serve the entire inhabitants of the city. Moreso, the volume of in-migration into the city also compounds the health problems facing the city. The conclusion is that there is need for more resources to be allocated to the health sector to guarantee adequate and functional health care services in the city.
Despite the fact that the national family planning program in korea has accomplished its primary goals of fertility reduction and universal contraceptive use, the induced abortion is still high and there has been an increasing trend in the population sex ratio at birth. It seems that the changes in the imbalance of sex ratio have originated from traditonal boy preference. This indicates that much of the current family planning program can be overhauled, so that the program quality could be better controlled, by preventing the number of unwanted pregnancies and the imbalance of sex ratios. This paper aims, therefore, to examine the determinants of induced abortion through the investigation of pregnancy outcomes and their changes over time and to study the interaction between induced abortion, boy preference and the imbalance of sex ratio in Korea. The abortion rate had increased rapidly until the mid-1980s when there were about the same number of abortions as live births. Thereafter, the abortion rate has been maintained at this high level. By parity it shows a much higher abortion rate for a higher parity at all time. From the first parity, the sex composition of previous children stands out as the most important factor in deciding the pregnancy outcome at all time. The probability of a pregnancy ending in an abortion increases substantially when parents already had a son. The decline of the desired family size and the sustained strong son preference has made the sex of children a more important factor in the determination of the pregnancy outcome. Women's education has had consistently positive effects on the probability of a pregnancy ending in an abortion, but the effect shows a steady decline over time. The premarital pregnancy and urban residence also increase the abortion probability. This study suggests that the main concerns of the family planning program should be to strengthen the social support policies so as to weaken the son preference value leading to a balanced sex ratio and prevention of induced abortions.
Focusing on the strength of son preference obtained from two surveys of the same area, an attempt has been made to measure the change on the IS value scale that many have occurred over the last seven-year period, the underlying assumption here being that the strength of son preference wanes in inverse proportion to the level of society's socio-economic development. Various methodological approaches have been put to test to weigh the importance of the sex preference as a dependent variable, as an independent variable, and as an intermediate variable. A few methodological issues are suggested.
여성은 여러 원천에서 제공되는 다양한 정보를 참고하여 출산조절결정을한다 본 연구는 사회조직(social network) 자료를 2단계 계량경제모형에 적용함으로써 여성의 출산조절에 미치는 다른 여성들의 견해와 행동의 효과를 분석한다. 동시에 (1) 출산조절결정에 미치는 사회적 지도력의 영향, (2) 여러 종류의 사회조직간 영향도 비교. (3) 출산조절 현장요원 및 여성사회조직의 역할 등을 고려함으로써 저개발국의 출산조절정책수립을 위한 정책점 시사점을 제공한다 A woman faced with choices regarding contraception has several sources of information which may influence her decision Among these are other women's ideas as well as their reported behavior. Applying a two-stage econometric model to data on married women taken from a study of Korean social networks. this Paper assesses the relative impacts of the two information sources above. In addition, this Paper (1 ) considers the role of social and opinion leadership in the impact of a family Planning Program by Postulating two different social influence factors, (2) explores which types of social network contacts most significantly amplify the impact of the family Planning program, and (3) discusses the effects of two types of family Planning Program efforts: the inputs of family planning field workers, and the use of indigenous women's groups.