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This thesis is focused on the matter of defection occurred to the Korean community in North Kando. After the March movement in 1919, it had raised the air of the independent movement outside Korea and simultaneously had reinforced the Korean partisan troops in Kando province. Because of the situation, the Japanese army made an invasion upon the Kando province with ZhangZuolin(張作霖)`s connivance. They had two goals of invasion, one of which was to annihilate the Korean armed troops and then another was to eradicate the resources supporting the forces. The Japanese army, composed of about 20,000 soldiers, gave a battle with the Korean troops in Chungsanli for around a week, but they could not reach their first aim, because the Korean troops could run away from the North Kando with some military achievements. For the second goal the Japanese army cruelly attacked and killed the unarmed Korean, and sat fire to houses in the Korean community. The Koreans faced to the massacre cannot but take defection into consideration. Soldiers had only been in a minority among defectors as compared with civilians. Civilians were regarded as the object to be executed by the reason that they had involved in anti-Japanese action. For their lives and property, therefore, they had no choice but to promise to become a Japanese subject. The Japanese army made principles and details on defection and was so intend on the matter for military and political advantages. Most of defectors over 20,000 had took part in independent organizations, who had been a participant in low rank. Their defection have shown that the basis of the independent movement in Kando was disquieted by the military action of Japan. In the matter of this situation, the Chinese local authorities feared that the defection to Japan might lead to the expansion of Japan in Kando province, and therefore they demanded the Koreans to be naturalized as Chinese. As the Koreans had got an absolute majority in population in North Kando, changing the state of politics in the Korean community was an important problem for all powers, Korean independent organizations, the Chinese authorities, and Japanese army and government.
After outbreak of Korean War, Korea Government declared Emergency Martial Law(state of siege) on July 8, 1950, and expanded it to Jeolla region and whole north area above 38 line. The general administrative and jurisdictional power was attribute to Martial Law Commander under the Martial Law. To whom violated Presidential Special Order(特別措置令), Articles for the Government of the Korean Constabulary(國防警備法) and National Security Act(國家保安法), arrests and detentions without arrest warrant and severe sentences in martial court are applied. When war went into a deadlock in 1951, the National Assembly requested clearance of Martial Law. Korea Government and the military switched ``Emergency`` Martial Law(非常戒嚴) to ``Precautionary`` Martial Law(警備戒嚴) and partially cleared Martial Law on regional basis. Therefore, Martial Law continued its enforcement throughout the Korean War period. The maintenance of Martial Law Status was continued for the purpose of removal of war collaborators(附逆者), political prisoner and political goals. President Syngman Rhee expanded his power by declaring Martial Law. During Busan Political Upheaval in 1952, Rhee used Martial Law for oppression the opposition party and constitutional amendment. During Korean War, Korea Government and the Military executed Special Measures, used repetitive anti-communism civil training controled on political parties and civil groups and strengthened the administrative organization as means for control, surveillance and political mobilization. Those above mentioned made Martial Law, as Giorgio Agamben said, a ``norm`` to whole society
The history of East Asia became an issue in the process of scholars` pursuit of historical studies for ‘Citizens,’ as well as ‘historical education for citizens.’ Historical studies continued to evolve ever since, and what is becoming increasingly apparent is that studies of the history of Korea as well as general education of it both trapped in the confines of Nationalism would most likely cause unintended distortion of historical facts and the truth behind them. Only by trying to figure out the history of Korea in the context of East Asian history, and expanding our perspective for us to be able to view the history of Korea as a part of a bigger world, we would be able to pursue and find out what really happened throughout the history of this country. The identity of the people of East Asia today is determined (at least in appearance) by their status as part of individual nationalized countries and not their status as part of the East Asian community. The former is their identity today, and the latter might be the one that should be pursued in the future. In this age of global history, the history of Korea should be examined and studied in the context of the East Asian history as well as the history of the entire world. The Korean historical studies and historical education of it should contribute to the Korean people`s development of an identity of their own as East Asian citizens.
This study considers the Eastern-Western Monthly Magazine published for missionary work by the Chinese missionary from Prussia, Karl Friedrich August Gutzlaff (1803-1851). This study aims to explore various aspects of the aforementioned magazine, such as its foundation, publication, circulation, content, characteristics, and significance. The first issue of the Eastern-Western Monthly Magazine was published in Guangzhou on August 1, 1833. The purpose of its foundation was to change the image of Westerners held by Chinese people by promoting Western culture in China. Six hundred copies of the first issue were published. Three hundred copies were additionally printed because it was common at that time for Westerns, who lived in Guangdong Province, to purchase the magazine and hand it out to Chinese people. Nine hundred copies of each issue were printed from the second issue. However, the magazine was completely suspended with its last issue in September 1939, right before the Opium War. This magazine published a total of 39 issues for five years and three months, excluding a suspended period in the middle. However, six issues were reprints of earlier issues, so a total of 33 issues were actually published. The Eastern-Western Monthly Magazine tried to gain a sense of familiarity from Chinese readers. The 15 x 25 cm sized magazine vertically printed the title “the Eastern-Western Monthly Magazine” in the middle of the cover. The words of Confucius were printed to the left of the title, and the editor Aehanja(愛漢者) was revealed beneath the title. Aehanja, which means a person who loves China, was the pseudonym of Karl Friedrich August Gutzlaff. Each page, which had content arranged in a vertical manner, had 11 lines, and each line had 25 letters. The magazine attempted to harmonize Western culture and China``s traditional mainstream culture by showing respect for Confucianism. The magazine tried to satisfy Chinese readers`` reading habits by adopting the traditional writing style that Chinese readers were familiar with. It can be said that the Eastern-Western Monthly Magazine, whose content was extensive and diverse, was an encyclopedic publication. The magazine had categories, such as introduction, history, geography, astronomy, news, trade, and miscellaneous, and the presented content covered science and technology, economy, animal, human figure, literature, policy, edification, advertisement, and others. In summary, the Eastern-Western Monthly Magazine has the following significances: First, the magazine, founded in China by a Western missionary, was a periodical publication and had an important position in modern media and publishing. Second, although the magazine was published for the propagation of Christian, it also appeared to be a sort of educational magazine that introduced Western civilization and culture to China. Third, the educational characteristics of the magazine had a significant influence and contributed to the appearance of many educational magazines in China.
This thesis aims to grasp how the history of East Asia is displayed in Kyushu National Museum. Kyushu National Museum, which opened in 2005, established “Understand Japanese culture from the point of Asian view” as its basic vision. This is the only museum that adapted Asian history as its subject. I will take on a new approach on understanding the display of the Kyushu National Museum. I will look into the relationship between Japanese history research and the developing process of Japanese museums, as well as historic research, and displays by analyzing the standards of local, national and regional history. The formation period of national history in the late 19thcenturymatchesImperialmuseum`serection.Havinganewrecognitionoflocalhistoryaround1960`sisoverlappedwiththemuseumfoundationboomin1970`s.Regional history was raised in the early 1990`s, which included the coming out of Kyunshu National Museum and built the Asian historical view. Kyushu National Museum was named “Cultural Exchange Exhibition” instead of “Permanent Exhibition”. In the Cultural Exchange Exhibition room, there were five classifications by era, comprising of the main exhibition room and eleven related rooms. The exhibition of local history represents Kyushu located in the frontier to accept and spread foreign culture in the history of Japan. Though an exhibition of national history holds few display items, the state of it is quite high. This tells us a process, a connection with different cultures leading to Japan`s imitation causing its originality. Exhibitions in the regional history are East Asian cultural properties, giving an opportunity to compare Japan`s. The exhibition of “Ding-dong, bell dium” attracts attention. This display expresses the interaction through musical instruments. It is an expressive concept that cultural interactions are resonance, because it gives a new perspective. A good amount of study in maritime history is a remarkable feature in the Japanese academic world. But there are no exhibitions about Sea Road, such as drifting records and Wako, despite of an ultimate theme, “Sea Road, Asian Route”. Some people have doubts about the slogan, “We (Kyushians) are the one. “ But it is hard to look for a regional diversity in the Main Exhibition room, except for one special exhibition. Also, it seems that local historians did not intervene in museum exhibitions. Kyushu National Museum did not include any Imjin War or Imperialism exhibitions. War is the most extreme form of cultural exchange. In spite of “cultural exchange”, there is no war in the display. I doubt the relation which the research trend of marine history by the Japanese academic world is mainly focused on the pre-modern one.