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It is necessary to pay cultural attention to “technical cooperation” among U.S. aid to Korea in the 1950s. Components of technical cooperation include the United Nations, the Foundation, the University and the Land Grant Colleges. The school will look at two of the six universities that appeared in the U.S. aid group in the 1950s. First, Syracuse University was in charge of providing audiovisual education guidance and facilities. It was aimed at public notification, but it was not enough for the South Korean government to take advantage of it. As a result, technology transfer at Syracuse University was mainly about business. The university expanded its business to the level of enterprise at that time. This is a view of universities and other profit-making activities that are generally focused on education. Second, Oregon University was a case of colliding with the U.S. Korean aid's stance of ‘low level of modernization.' Since the mid-1950s, universities have had to focus on education projects due to changes in U.S. foreign aid. Oregon University had to do the same. However, at that time, the Korean government wanted more than a “low level of modernization” from Oregon University to develop a long-term economic development plan. However, the Public Administration Bureau of the Office for Economic Coordination in Seoul, which oversaw the university's business, did not want Oregon University to pursue development projects other than just administrative guidance. As a result, Oregon University's business was frustrated. In conclusion, there were six universities in the U.S. aid to Korea in the 1950s. These were components of technical cooperation, but were understood individually. However, they worked for profit-making and individual purposes, respectively. However, it can be said that the U.S. aid authorities failed to get out of the hegemony of the U.S. aid agency.
According to the cultural heritage studies, rural heritages in the local society consist of natural heritage, cultural heritage, industrial heritage, and living heritage. Among them, cultural heritage is categorized to historical heritage and art heritage, the case of industrial heritage as a sub-category is divided into agricultural heritage, manufacturing heritage, financial heritage, etc. Pocheon county[抱川郡] have got the all cultural heritage as a rural region, Gyeonggi-do province, Korea. First, so-called Sanjeong-hosu [山井湖水] in located in the northern Pocheon basically belongs to the category of natural heritage, but Youngbuk Irrigation Association[永北水利組合] managing Sanjeong-hosu actually is the historical heritage as well as industrial heritage, strictly speaking agricultural heritage. Meanwhile, Pocheon Agricultural Cooperatives[抱川農業協同組合] including Gaesung Ginseng Cooperative[開城人蔘組合] is explicitly the industrial heritage(agricultural heritage). In the case of Gaesung Cooperative, it has the complicated history such like ‘Gaesung Period(1910~50), Seoul Period(1957~73), Pocheon Period(1973~present)' for 100 years or more. As time has gone on like so, agricultural association / cooperatives in Pocheon society have been the old historical heritage passing by the colonial period(1910~45). According to the latest cultural heritage studies, these industrial / agricultural heritages in local community is called “difficult heritage”, it is waiting for new 21 Century-version (=interpretation) in context of the historical studies and new style heritage studies.
In the late 17 century, it was defined that Hanryangs(閑良) were Yangban's offsprings who were preparing for the military examination(武 科). That was reflected in household register of the Chosun dynasty, which was made to control the people during the pre-modern era. However, Hanryang was the term to designate diverse classes from the late Koryo and the early Chosun dynasty(麗末鮮初). Hanryang could be retired officials or their offsprings, or could be an idiomatic word designated certain class of the public until Hanryang had its legal statue. Even during the late Chosun dynasty, both Hanryang from the national regulation and Hanryang Which was used throughout society were existed at the same time. In the earlier studies, Hanryang was understood as one of the middle classes, so it was assumed semi-yangban, and it was thought as the position which people sought to move onto the upper classes. This research tendency basically had an intention to clear up the period when it was end of the Caste system collapse and dissolution and the researchers understood the position as a class. Indeed, when you look through the historical resources published in the late Chosun dynasty, it was conflictingly described that Hanryangs were the students who were preparing for the military examination while the other Hanryangs were living idle with no jobs. So it is really hard to define Hanryang. Hanryang therefore should be analyzed from the national documents including family registers rather be analyzed in terms of classes like earlier studies. Because the opinions arguing that the position was the class is criticized and earlier studies that used time sequential research of the individuals and families from the family registers are being criticized. In this paper, I can help you understand historical Hanrang by analyzing it from governmental regulation. Also you can understand family registers and positions in late Chosun dynasty through distinctiveness and universality of Hanryang better. For this, I explained various characteristics of Hanryang, that is, who were preparing for the military examination, who were appointed as military occupations, and who became Hanryang to meet local finance and administration.
The objective of this article is to examine the international relations of the Korean Empire in order to understand the influence of European diplomatic foreign policies from 1987 to 1904. The documents of the French Foreign Ministry concerning the Korean Empire (1897-1904) provide clues to how the Korean Empire was affected by fluctuations in European diplomatic foreign policies. They not only track the diplomatic relations between France and Korea, but also between other states such as Russia, Japan, and these will be the focus of the article. Britain allied with Japan in 1902 and 1904 in order to block the Russo-Franco alliance. The latter may have threatened the British Empire`s influence in African and Chinese regions, and Germany refused Britain`s proposal to balance this with an alliance of their own. As such, the British Empire had to find an alternative to Germany, and selected Japan for an anti-Russo-Franco alliance. not only the result of Japanese colonial ambitions, but also the diplomatic strategy of European Empire nations.
There have been two different ideas to understand the time when Silla and Balhae coexisted. One way has comprehended it as ``the period of North and South kingdom``, but the other has deemed it ``the period of unified Silla and Balhae``. The term of ``unified Silla`` means that Balhae is excluded from Korean history. However, the idea of ``unified Silla`` is being still supported to emphasize the opportunity to form Korean people. The concept of ``unified Silla`` has common ground with the theory of Silla`s legitimacy prevailing in Jpseon period and ``unification of Korean Peninsula`` in modern Manseonsahak(historical studies on Mancuria and Joseon) in the way that it discriminates itself from Silla kingdom during the Three-Kingdoms era. Also, it is the same that Balhae has been ruled out from the view of ``unified Silla`` which gave the meaning to Silla`s final victory as historical milestone. Therefore, this study exmaines the development in the theory of Silla`s legitimacy and recognition of Balhae`s history to understand the current problem of dual attitude toward Balhae`s history and search for alternative. Most representative history books in Joseon period from Dongguktonggam to Dongsagangmok, which were written in the historical view with the theory of legitimacy, treated Balhae`s hisotry as a maginal country. Goguryeo was rediscovered in the external crisis after the two struggles against Japanese and Manchus. Balhae succeeded to Goguryeo began to receive attention with it. Donsa written by Yi Jong-huee completely denied the theory of Silla`s legitimacy by means of the theory of Dangun and Gija`s legitimacy. Balhaego written by Yu Deuk-gong could raise the idea of North and South kingdom era where Silla and Bahae coexisted on the Donsa`s view. With Dongsa, Dongsaganmok, the history book wrtten in theory of legitimacy, was much helpful for Yu to write Balhaego.