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The present study investigated the effect of enzyme pre-treatment on extraction of active compounds from spices, namely, black pepper and cardamom. A mixture of enzymes, namely, Lumicellulae (a mixture of cellulase, β-glucanase, pectinase, and xylanase), was used for the pre-treatment of black pepper and cardamom. The pre-treatment of spices with enzyme increased the yield of essential oil. The GC and GC-MS evaluation of the essential oil showed that the major active components in spices,such as, β-caryophyllene in black pepper and α-terpenyl acetate in cardamom, markedly increased from 15.03 to 25.58 and 38.91 to 48.6%, respectively, on enzyme treatment as compared with the untreated control. The improvement in the yield and the major components of essential oil was attributed to the destruction of the cell wall structure by the enzymes pre-treatment which was substantiated with microscopical images using SEM.
Mathew, Aleyamma,George, Preethi Sara,Arjunan, Asha,Augustine, Paul,Kalavathy, MC,Padmakumari, G,Mathew, Beela Sarah Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2016 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.17 No.6
Background: Increasing breast cancer (BC) incidence rates have been reported from India; causal factors for this increased incidence are not understood and diagnosis is mostly in advanced stages. Trivandrum exhibits the highest BC incidence rates in India. This study aimed to estimate trends in incidence by age from 2005-2014, to predict rates through 2020 and to assess the stage at diagnosis of BC in Trivandrum. Materials and Methods: BC cases were obtained from the Population Based Cancer Registry, Trivandrum. Distribution of stage at diagnosis and incidence rates of BC [Age-specific (ASpR), crude (CR) and age-standardized (ASR)] are described and employed with a joinpoint regression model to estimate average annual percent changes (AAPC) and a Bayesian model to estimate predictive rates. Results: BC accounts for 31% (2681/8737) of all female cancers in Trivandrum. Thirty-five percent (944/2681) are <50 years of age and only 9% present with stage I disease. Average age increased from 53 to 56.4 years (p=0.0001), CR (per $10^5$ women) increased from 39 (ASR: 35.2) to 55.4 (ASR: 43.4), AAPC for CR was 5.0 (p=0.001) and ASR was 3.1 (p=0.001). Rates increased from 50 years. Predicted ASpR is 174 in 50-59 years, 231 in > 60 years and overall CR is 80 (ASR: 57) for 2019-20. Conclusions: BC, mostly diagnosed in advanced stages, is rising rapidly in South India with large increases likely in the future; particularly among post-menopausal women. This increase might be due to aging and/or changes in lifestyle factors. Reasons for the increased incidence and late stage diagnosis need to be studied.