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This study investigated physique and Skeletal maturation of classified by somatotype of 202 male elementary school students attending Taekwondo Gym in Seoul.Radiographs of the left hand and wrist were taken with an 31 portable(70kVp; 20mA) X-ray unit assembled in a portable apparatus designed and constructed according to the recommendations of Greulich and Pyle(1959). Skeletal age was determined by RUS scores(radius, ulna, and short bones) with TW2 method(Tanner et al., 1983). All skeletal maturity assessments of the samples were made by author. The reliability of the ratings by the study assessor was tested using a random sample of radiographs from 30 boys, aged 7-12 years. The absolute mean difference between first and second assessment was 0.17 years for the RUS(SD=0.27) system and 0.20 years for carpal(SD=0.26) system. Therefore, intra-observer reliability for skeletal age assessments were comparable with results of previous studies(Beunen et al. 1990; Song et al., 1998). All analysis were carried out by the SAS computer programs(SAS Institute, 1988). Skeletal maturity state was estimated by the calculation of 3, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, and 97 percentiles. Comparisons between levels of maturity were applied by means of analysis of variance(ANOVA) and Duncan's a posteriori tests. The result showed that Physique increase nearly linearly between 7 and 12 years age boys.In factor of RUS score and bone age appeared Endomorphy average the highest in three groups in Somatotype.
The principal purpose of this study is to analyze closely the causal effects between level of martial-art tranning and health promotion behavior ot the adolescent's. More detalis, The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of which level of participation of martial-art trainning influences on the health promotion behavior of the adolescent's. For this purpose the research was administered to using materials of 648 male and female universities dwelling in Seoul. Data were collected through samples by means of cluster sampling method. The questionnaire for data collection of this study was based on those used in previous studies between participation of martial-art tranning and health promotion behavior scales, and used them after examing the verification of validity and reliability through pilot test. The methods of Statistics used to analyze the collected datas were multiple regression analysis.The following is conlusions brought through these analyzing methods and process in this study.Hopothesis Ⅰ was selected to optimal casual relationship.Hopothesis Ⅱ was selected to optimal casual relationship.Hopothesis Ⅲ was selected to optimal casual relationship.Hopothesis Ⅳ was selected to optimal casual relationship.
This is to characterize the fluid mechanics of surfactant water solutions, which exhibit drag reduction in the turbulent flow as compared to pure water. The emphasis is placed on those fluid characteristic aspects of drag reducing solutions which are relevant for application in closed circulation loops for the purpose of pumping power savings, like hydronic cooling and heating systems in buildings. The experiments are carried out with the solutions of the surfactant Beraid DR-IW 616 in concentration of 100∼3,000ppm.The following key parameters are focused in this study: surfactant concentration, solution temperature and pipe diameter.
Malocclusion can be often found after improper reduction of facial bone fractures, especially by the plastic surgeon or other medical doctor. This causes lots of problem in esthetics, mastication, or facial symmetry. We present four cases which are related above problems. These were well treated by orthognathic surgery or orthodontic treatment.
본 논문에서 제안된 십진 부동소수점 연산 장치(decimal floating-point arithmetic unit, DFP)는 L.K.Wang에 의해 제안된 십진 부동소수점 유닛을 기반으로 하여 데이터의 병렬 처리를 통해 동일한 크기의 지수를 갖는 두 오퍼랜드의 가수 영역의 고속 연산을 지원하도록 재설계 하였다. 제안된 십진 부동소수점 연산 장치는 Xilinx ISE를 이용하여 xc2vp30-7ff896 타겟 디바이스로 합성하였으며 (주)시스템센트로이드의 Flowrian을 통해 시뮬레이션 검증하였다. 제안된 방식은 L.K.Wang에 의해 제안된 설계 방식 및 참고문헌 의 설계 방식과 비교하여 동일한 입력 데이터를 이용하여 시뮬레이션 검증한 결과, L.K.Wang 방식보다 약 8.4%, 참고문헌 의 방식보다 약 3% 정도의 처리 속도가 향상되었다. In this paper, a decimal floating-point arithmetic unit(DFP) was proposed and redesigned to support high speed arithmetic operation employed parallel processing technique. The basic architecture of the proposed DFP was based on the L.K.Wang's DFP and improved it enabling high speed operation by parallel processing for two operands with same size of exponent. The proposed DFP was synthesized as a target device of xc2vp30-7ff896 using Xilinx ISE and verified by simulation using Flowrian tool of System Centroid co. Compared to L.K.Wang's DFP and reference 's method, the proposed DFP improved data processing speed about 8.4% and 3% respectively in case of same input data.