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In South Korea, traffic accident patients can be treated under automobile insurance coverage. This study investigated the status of Korean medicine (KM) Automobile insurance system and usage status of main pharmacopuncture in KM clinic which reported that the largest number of automobile insurance fee claims among medical institutions. We surveyed 258 traffic accident patients who were treated at Namsangcheon KM clinic from 2014 to 2018 according to medical chart. The majority of the patients were male and thirties. In traffic accident situation, the highest distribution was car to car crash with 85.66% and 66.67% of the patients visited in the most acute phase. The most frequent treatment period was within 4 weeks and the number of treatments was 10 or less with 72.87%. In total results of treatment, the distribution was exellent with 10.08%, good with 46.90%, fair with 27.13% and poor with 15.89%, and the effective rate was 84.11%. The most frequent treatment period was within 4 weeks with 64.73% and the number of treatments was 10 or less with 72.87%. Of the 242 patients who received pharmacopunture, 91.5% were treated with HO, which was named after Honghwaja and TA, which was named after traffic accidents, and there were significant differences in the number of treatments and symptom improvement between the two groups. In this study, we confirmed the status of automobile insurance treatment and usage of main pharmacopuncture of single KM clinic with symptom improvement. This study can be regarded as one of the basis of KM treatment for the rapidly growing automobile insurance market.
Torilis Japonica (TJ) has been used as an anti-allergy, antifungal, and antibacterial agent. Recent studies have reported that it also shows anti-cancer effects. It is report that TJ inhibits melanin synthesis in melanocyte in the skin. However, the effect and mechanism of TJ extract (TJE) on Ultraviolet (UV)B-induced photoaging are unknown. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of TJE on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 expressions and the underlying molecular mechanism in UVB-irradiated primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). The effect of TJE on HDF cell viability was determined using the XTT assay and cell counting. MMP-1 and MMP-3 expressions levels were measured by western blotting and real-time PCR analysis. Activations of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and activator protein-1(AP-1) were measured by western blotting. Our results showed that TJE effectively reduced UVB-induced MMP-1 and MMP-3 protein and mRNA levels. Moreover, TJE significantly blocked the UVB-induced activation of MAPK (p38 and JNK) and transcription factors (NF-κB and AP-1), but not ERK. Taken together, our results suggest that the TJE inhibits UVB-induced MMP expressions in HDFs and its may be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of skin photoaging.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of Juglans regia complex extract(JCE) consisted of Juglans regia, Eucommia ulmoides, Eleutherococcus senticosus and Zingiber officinale on osteoclast differentiation. Cell toxicity test by using CCK-8, TRAP activity and TRAP positive multi-nucleated cell counting were performed to evaluate inhibitory effect on differentiation of osteoclast from bone marrow derived macrophages(BMMs) induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand(RANKL). As a result, JCE inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in BMMs dose-dependently without cytotoxicity. These results suggest that JCE may have a potential role for treating bone lytic diseases such as osteoporosis.
This study aimed to investigate the latest trends in the relationship between atopic dermatitis(AD) and psychological factors(PF) and to examine it in korean medicine. We searched MEDLINE for this analysis with the title “atopic dermatitis” AND (“psychology” OR “psychological” OR “mental” OR “emotion” OR “anxiety” OR “depression”) in recent 5 years and searched OASIS on the title “atopy” OR “psychology” OR “emotion” from 2002 to 2017. We selected 23 papers on MEDLINE, 7 papers on OASIS. In western medicine, Stress causes changes in the adrenal nerves, endocrine, and immunological mechanisms and exacerbates dermatitis, which is explained by HPA axis and sympathetic nerve axis, neurogenic inflammation, and cholinergic signals. In Korean medicine, Stress(神) exacerbates AD by affecting the five organs, especially the heart(心), causing inflammation(火熱). We studied the link between AD and PF in Western and Korean medicine. More research is needed in the future.
The aim of this study is to compare the anti-inflammatory and immunological activity of different parts (bone, meat, and rind) of Yeonsan Ogye (YO). In order to evaluate cytotoxicity, MTT assay was performed. We investigated the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. All parts of the YO showed no toxicity at concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 ㎍/㎖. Rooster"s bone, hen"s bone, and rind decreased the production of NO. And rooster"s bone, meat, and hen"s bone also attenuated TNF-α production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, all parts of the YO decreased IL-1β and IL-6 production in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, whereas they all increased IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α production in normal RAW264.7 cells. Rooster exhibited higher immune activation and inhibitory activity on inflammation than a hen, and among different parts of the YO, bone showed the highest activity. Our results demonstrated and compared the anti-inflammatory and immunological activity of different parts of the YO. These results suggest that YO may be developed as a raw material for new health supplement food and medicine to attenuate various symptoms related to inflammation and immunity.
The aim of this study was to identify the reliability and the validity of Five Organs Questionnaire (FOQ). In this study, 335 data was collected from early adulthood of A-city, D-city and C-city in South Korea from Dec. 2016 to Jan. 2017, and the collected data was analyzed with SPSS 23.0 software. The result showed that the Cronbach’s α of five organs was 0.775-0.853. The reliabilities of test and retest Intra Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for the five organs were .891-.929 in pattern identification and .874-.930 in functional evaluation, respectively. Each organ was divided by two factors, and the factor loadings of Liver, Heart, Spleen, Lung and Kidney were 52.973%, 54.534%, 57.060%, 53.803%, and 46.337%, respectively. The functional evaluation of five organs was associated with self-rated health status as r was -.443 to -.583(p<.001), and quality of life as r was -.5.17 to -.716(p<.001), respectively. The test-retest diagnostic agreement was 67.2% and Kappa was 0.562. This study revealed that FOQ is a reliable and valid questionnaire.
The aim of this research was to determine the diverse effects of Sappan Lignum extract and brazilin on human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. We confirmed the antioxidant effect of Sappan Lignum extract and brazilin was analyzed by using an ABTS assay, confirming the efficacy of water extraction method. Also, we examined effect of Sappan Lignum extract and brazilin on the cell viability, using the MTS assay in HaCaT cells. mRNA expression levels of tight junction-related genes associated with skin barrier in HaCaT cells were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Sappan Lignum extract increased the cellular activity of HaCaT cells and the expression of the tight junction-related genes claudin 3, claudin 6, and ZO-2. Brazilin displayed the same effects as that of the extract on HaCaT cells activity and tight junction-related genes expression. Furthermore, dispase assay demonstrated altered cell–cell adhesion strength of Sappan Lignum extract or brazilin treated HaCaT cells. Sappan Lignum extract or brazilin might be an useful ingredient in skin-mosturizinng and anti-wrinkle cosmetics, given its effects of altering mRNA expression of tight junction-related genes and enhancing cell–cell adhesion strength of HaCaT cells.