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      • Netherlands and China porcelain trade in 17th and 18th century

        Plamena Todorova, Ilieva Graduate School, Korea University 2016 국내석사

        RANK : 233023

        In 17th and 18th century in Europe porcelain became one of the most desirable and precious possessions. The Portuguese put the beginning of the China-European trade, but Dutch were the one to lead the trade with the East to a new stage of development. In short period of time the Dutch managed to create a new Chinese product by approaching the Chinese ceramic from a new commercial perspective. This is in connection with the wider changes within the Dutch society during the same time period when national wealth increased dramatically and with it the supply and availability of commercial good from all over the world. To understand the demand of the Dutch market and the trade relations between Netherlands and China, I looked through the historical background of the both countries, their economic and social development, the history and structure of the VOC and the mechanism of the trade between Netherlands and China. The pieces exported for the Dutch market, can be chronologically divided into two groups: ware in 17th century and ware in 18th century. Chinese export porcelain to Netherlands in the 17th century can be classified once by the origin of the shape: 1) Traditionally Chinese shapes and 2) Shapes with European origins, and secondly by its decoration: 1) Motifs from the Chinese tradition, 2) Sino-European hybrid decoration, 3) European styled decoration. There is also one more group of pieces which can not be added to any of the previously mentioned groups: pieces decorated in Chinese manner, but with European shape and entirely European function. The shapes of the early exported wares were chiefly repeating traditionally Chinese forms but with the time new repertoire of ware can be seen. The motifs, dear to the Chinese tradition, were hardly understood by the Dutch and they were more likely attracted by the decorative luxury aspect of the exotic pieces. Western motif began to infiltrate Chinese decorative schemes which logically led to the creation of hybrid pieces decoration in Chinese manner but with European shape and function. During the 18th century European clients increasingly commissioned as special order pieces with specific shape and decoration. The piece exported to Netherlands can be divided in two main groups: 1) Subjects copied from European sources, 2) Armorial porcelain. Not only the Dutch painters and designers were commissioned to create pattern for decoration of the porcelain, but also historical events and figures, Christian and mythological scenes, genre scenes or stories from the European folklore also became part of the decoration schemes of the period. The use of the unknown by the Chinese potters, but wanted by the customers motifs give the feeling of some kind of personalization of the production end even greater adaption of the Chinese ceramic production to the demands of the market. The custom of bearing a coat of arms in Europe began in the medieval ages and with the time it became a personalized family mark. Thus the armorial porcelain was a major part of Chinese export ceramic. In general human figures did not occupy a prominent place in the traditional output of Chinese kilns. But the production of ceramic figures depicting European or Chinese people was widely stimulated by the demand of Western clients. It can be seen that the Netherlands and China Porcelain Trade in 17th and 18th century has its own logic and rhythm of development, which is following the social and economic changes in the both countries.

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