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<P>A single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) network is fabricated and its electronic transport properties are investigated. It shows a typical p-type field-effect-transistor (FET) behavior and nonlinearities in the source current-source bias characteristics. The network also exhibits incomplete turn-off and a small mobility. These characteristics are explained by the fact that the network is a mixture of metallic and semiconducting SWCNTs connecting with one another. Various cross junctions such as SWCNT (semiconducting)-SWCNT (semiconducting), SWCNT (semiconducting)-SWCNT (metallic) are the source of nonlinearities and the small mobility. Incomplete turn-off can be explained by the parallel conduction paths consisting of metallic SWCNTs which are insensitive to the gate bias. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)</P>
<P>We fabricated a spin-filtering device which consists of InAs based two-dimensional electron gas and two ferromagnetic pads. A fringe field at the edge of a ferromagnetic pad was used to induce spin polarization of the moving electrons in a two-dimensional electron gas. The direction of the fringe field was determined by the magnetization of the ferromagnetic pad, which was switched by using the external magnetic field. A current of which spins were aligned by one fringe field (polarizer) was filtered by the other fringe field (analyzer). The resistance of the device was in either a high state or a low state depending on the alignment of the fringe fields. The spin-filtering effect diminishes rapidly as the thermal energy exceeds the Zeeman splitting. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)</P>
<P>We demonstrated high-speed characteristics of an oxide-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with intracavity structures for both p- and n-contacts, based on InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells operating at λ ∼ 980 nm, indicating a low thermal resistance (R<SUB>th</SUB>). The asymmetric current injection scheme is employed for reducing current crowding around the rim of the oxide aperture. A high aluminium content undoped Al<SUB>0.88</SUB>Ga<SUB>0.12</SUB>As and GaAs distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror is used for efficient heat dissipation. The VCSEL with a 7 μm oxide aperture exhibited an output power of 2.5 mW and a threshold current of 0.8 mA with a slope efficiency of 0.39 mW/mA at 20 °C under continuous-wave operation and it still worked with 1.3 mW at 90 °C. The temperature tuning coefficient of 0.081 nm/°C and dissipated electrical power tuning coefficient of 0.104 nm/mW were observed, leading to a low R<SUB>th</SUB> of 1.28 °C/mW. A high modulation bandwidth up to 13 GHz with a modulation current efficiency factor of 6.1 GHz/mA<SUP>1/2</SUP> was achieved. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)</P>
<P>In this paper, a theoretical model for the cross-plane thermal conductivity of layered quantum semiconductor structures is presented. This model is used to evaluate the cross-plane thermal conductivity of the active region in GaInAs/AlInAs-based quantum cascade (QC) lasers. We take into account the temperature dependent thermal conductivity of the layers. By including their interface thermal resistance and scattering processes via the multilayer quantum structure, we predict a decrease by an order of magnitude of the lattice thermal conductivity of the active region in GaInAs/AlInAs-based QC lasers. We computed that the cross-plane thermal conductivity of a InGaAs/AlInAs-based QC laser active region at low temperature from 80 K to 130 K is in the range of 0.5–0.7 W/(m K), whilst the average experimental value obtained by Lops et al.  is 0.6 W/(m K). In addition, using the result as input, we present a numerical investigation into the facet temperature profile in this laser during continuous-wave operation using a finite-element method. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)</P>
<P>Synthesis of tetraketide lactones 2 and 3, which are likely to be produced by a model pikromycin polyketide synthase (PKS), has been investigated. The tetraketide lactones with six-membered rings, 2a and 2b, were synthesized successfully by the asymmetric aldol reaction, allylation, and the Reformatsky reaction. The attempted synthesis of tetraketide lactones with eight-membered rings, 3a and 3b, led to the formation of the compounds 2a and 2b. The synthesis of another tetraketide lactone compounds 35 was attempted with the hope that introducing an additional methyl group would lead to a change in thermodynamic stability. However, it produced the corresponding tetraketide lactone 34 with a six-membered ring. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007)</P> <B>Graphic Abstract</B> <P> <img src='wiley_img/1434193X-2007-2007-20-EJOC200700254-fig000.gif' alt='wiley_img/1434193X-2007-2007-20-EJOC200700254-fig000'> </P>
<P>New Recipes for rare earth doped CaSO<SUB>4</SUB> luminescence phosphors which give high photoluminescence efficiency combined with high thermal stability desired for noval display applications are described. The influence of cooling rate, thermal treatments and water washing as well as crystal size and morphology on the luminescence efficiency are described. While a modified co-precipitation technique was found best suited for preparing thermostimulated luminescence phosphors required for radiation dosimetry, those made by solid state diffusion reactions at high temperatures were found best suited to achieve the high photoluminescence efficiency required for lighting and display applications. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)</P>
<P>Optical lithography with an ArF excimer laser (193 nm) can produce sub 100nm patterns. Without the reduction of wavelength, further increase in resolution is expected by employing an immersion technique in which a liquid medium is filled between the objective lens and underlying photoresist. In this case, resolution can be enhanced through the increase of numerical aperture. However, in order for immersion lithography to be successful, many problems associated with the liquid environment need to be solved. One of the serious problems is the interaction between liquid and photoresist. Liquid may penetrate into the photoresist and cause leaching problem. This in turn modifies the physical and chemical properties of the photoresist. Thus, it is important to monitor the modification of the photoresist by immersion liquid. In this work, spectroscopic ellipsometry and imaging ellipsometry are used to investigate the absorption of liquid by photoresist as well as top coat which is used to prevent water penetration into underlying photoresist. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)</P>
<P>Using micromagnetic simulation we have investigated the vortex dynamics in an exchange-biased permalloy nanodisk with 500 nm-radius and 10 nm-thickness. We found the exchange bias plays an important role in the vortex dynamics. The exchange bias results in the elliptical trajectory. The vortex dynamics in the exchange-biased nanodisk is strongly affected by the angle between the exchange bias field and the external field. We found that it is possible to selectively transform the vortex state into the single domain state with a pulsed magnetic field by controlling the magnitude and the angle of the external magnetic field. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)</P>
<P>We investigated the correlation between the surface roughness and the magnetic properties in electroplated Ni–Fe Permalloy thin films. The Ni–Fe Permalloy thin films electroplated with electrolytes containing a leveling additive showed reduction of coercivity and increase of permeability compared with those prepared with pure inorganic electrolytes. The decrease of the surface roughness resulted in the reduction of coercivity and showed a strong correlation. The improvements in the surface roughness and coercivity caused the initial and incremental permeability increase by 450% and 130%, respectively. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)</P>
<P>The high-frequency giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect in a Co<SUB>47.5</SUB>Fe<SUB>21.9</SUB>Al<SUB>17.2</SUB>O<SUB>15.2</SUB> thin film was systematically investigated. In the frequency range of 100–500 MHz, GMI profiles showed a double-peak characteristic, reflecting an evident existence of the transverse magnetic anisotropy in the film, which coincided with the magnetization data. Interestingly, there was an anomalous transformation in the GMI profile from “positive” to “negative” and this was associated with the complex phase transformation of permeability. The GMI ratio decreased with decreasing film-thickness, due to an increase of the electrical resistivity and a decrease of the magnetic softness. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)</P>